Dietary ascorbic acid requirements during the hatchery production of turbot larvae

Authors

  • G. Merchie,

    1. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, University of Gent, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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  • P. Lavens,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, University of Gent, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium
      †Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +32-9-2643754; fax: +32-9-2644193; email: patrick.lavens@copy;rug.ac.be.
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  • Ph. Dhert,

    1. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, University of Gent, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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  • M. García Ulloa Góamez,

    1. Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Analysis, University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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    • Present address: Laboratorio de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara, M. Lopez de Legazpi #235, Ap. Postal 3, C.P. 48987, Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico.

  • H. Nelis,

    1. Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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  • A. De Leenheer,

    1. Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Analysis, University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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  • P. Sorgeloos

    1. Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, University of Gent, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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†Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +32-9-2643754; fax: +32-9-2644193; email: patrick.lavens@copy;rug.ac.be.

Abstract

The effect of high ascorbic acid (AA) levels transferred through enriched live food was evaluated for turbot Scophthalmus maximus larvae in two consecutive feeding experiments. The same feeding strategy was applied to all treatments, except for the AA content of the live food which was manipulated through bioencapsulation with ascorbyl palmitate. This resulted finally in a low, medium and high-AA treatment. The AA incorporation levels in the turbot larvae (up to 1400 μg AA g DW−1) were correlated with the AA content of the live food administered. However, feeding the high AA concentration resulted in the same values as for the medium treatment, indicating a saturation of the body AA reserves. Under standard culture conditions, no differences in growth nor overall survival could be detected among the different groups, illustrating that the dietary AA requirements of larval turbot are met by non-enriched live food containing already 500 μg AA g DW−1. The larvae of the high-AA treatment, however, showed a better pigmentation rate (47 and 32% for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) compared to the other groups (35 and 25%, respectively). Evaluation of the physiological condition applying a salinity stress test revealed an improvement by feeding extra AA, significantly in the medium-AA treatment. Though not significantly different, cumulative mortalities after challenge with Vibrio anguillarum amounted to 50% for the control v. 40% for the fish fed medium and high-AA diets, respectively. Moreover, the onset of mortalities in this study was slower (not significantly) for the fish fed the extra AA.

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