• Scophthalmus maximus;
  • development;
  • embryo;
  • antioxidant enzymes;
  • lipid peroxide

The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC, catalase (EC, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPX; EC, glutathione reductase (EC and DT-diaphorase (EC, plus total GPX activity (sum of SeGPX and Se-independent GPX activities), were studied in 13 500 g supernatants of embryos and 3-day and 11-day post-hatch larvae of turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. SOD activity decreased progressively during development from embryos to 11-day-old larvae, indicative of a decreased need to detoxify superoxide anion radical (O2). In contrast, catalase, SeGPX and glutathione reductase activities increased progressively from embryos to 11-day-old larvae, indicative of an increased need to metabolize hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides. Consistent with the latter changes, levels of lipid peroxides (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) increased 13-fold from embryos to 3-day-old larvae, whilst total peroxidizable lipid was indicated to decrease. Increases were seen for NADPH-dependent DT-diaphorase (after hatching) and total GPX (between 3 and 11 days post-hatch) activities, whilst no change was found in NADH-dependent DT-diaphorase activity. Overall, the results demonstrate a capacity for early life-stages of S. maximus to detoxify reactive oxygen species (O2 and H2O2) and other pro-oxidant compounds (organic peroxides, redox cycling chemicals). Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative antioxidant changes occur during hatching and development, possibly linked to such events as altered respiration rates (SOD changes) and tissue reorganization and development (catalase, SeGPX, lipid peroxidation).