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Coupling non-invasive physiological assessments with telemetry to understand inter-individual variation in behaviour and survivorship of sockeye salmon: development and validation of a technique

Authors

  • S. J. Cooke,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Applied Conservation Research, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada,
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  • G. T. Crossin,

    1. Centre for Applied Conservation Research, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada,
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  • D. A. Patterson,

    1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Pacific Region, Cooperative Resource Management Institute, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada,
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  • K. K. English,

    1. LGL Limited Environmental Research Associates, 9768 Second Street, Sydney, BC, V8L 3Y8, Canada,
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  • S. G. Hinch,

    1. Centre for Applied Conservation Research, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada,
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  • J. L. Young,

    1. Centre for Applied Conservation Research, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada,
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  • R. F. Alexander,

    1. LGL Limited Environmental Research Associates, 9768 Second Street, Sydney, BC, V8L 3Y8, Canada,
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  • M. C. Healey,

    1. Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada,
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  • G. Van Der Kraak,

    1. Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada and
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  • A. P. Farrell

    1. Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada
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    • ‡‡

      Present address: Agricultural Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.


†Tel.: +1 604 228 1992; fax: +1 604 822 9102; email: scooke@interchange.ubc.ca

Abstract

Approximately 200 km from the mouth of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, were gastrically implanted with radio transmitters without anaesthetic. Subsets of the transmitter implanted fish were also biopsied which included drawing blood from the caudal peduncle (3 ml), removal of gill tissue (0·03 g) and quantification of energetic status using a microwave fat meter. Several experiments were used to test the hypothesis that the biopsy had a negligible effect on the subsequent survival and migratory behaviour of transmitter implanted fish. In the first experiment, no difference was found in the survival (both 100%) or tag retention (both 100%) between the two treatment groups (transmitter implanted with and without biopsy) when fish were held in pens for 24 h in the marine environment. Similarly, in other experiments where fish were released to the ocean to resume their migratory journey, no statistical differences were found in the travel times of fish in the two treatment groups, or in the proportion of fish that passed in-river telemetry checkpoints. These results indicated that the handling and biopsy methods produced similar levels of mortality and tag retention as the telemetry treatment alone and that any changes in behaviour between the two treatment groups did not adversely affect migration time. Based upon the evidence provided from the biotelemetry of >300 adult sockeye salmon, it was felt that this general type of approach could be applicable to other fish species.

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