The influence of temperature on prey consumption and growth in mass of juvenile trahira Hoplias aff. malabaricus were investigated. Consumption of small-sized lambari Astyanax altiparanae (mean standard length, LS, 5·43 cm) varied from zero to 65 over a period of 30 days. Temperatures ranged from 14 to 34° C and the size of trahiras ranged from 17·5 to 24·7 cm LS. Prey consumption differed significantly among temperatures. Trahiras at 18° C consumed significantly less than those at 30° C. A linear multiple regression model including temperature, prey consumption and LS explained 89·4% of the variability in growth in mass. Some caution is suggested when inferring the impact of H. aff. malabaricus piscivory on assemblage structures in systems that, despite their location in tropical regions, are subjected to seasonal thermal variations.