Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, U.K.
Article first published online: 24 JUL 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles
Journal of Fish Biology
Volume 74, Issue 10, pages 2279–2298, June 2009
How to Cite
Paxton, C. G. M., Winfield, I. J., Fletcher, J. M., George, D. G. and Hewitt, D. P. (2009), Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, U.K. Journal of Fish Biology, 74: 2279–2298. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02235.x
- Issue published online: 24 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 24 JUL 2009
- (Received 5 July 2007, Accepted 16 February 2008)
- freshwater fish;
- year-class strength
Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock–recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years.