In the present study, sagittal otoliths of confirmed male and female specimens of the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta that were collected monthly over the course of a year from Biscayne Bay, Florida, U.S.A. were analysed. The timing and frequency of O. beta spawning seasons are reported by examination of the gonado-somatic index. The estimated ages of males and females ranged from < 1 year to 6 and 5 years, respectively. Strong sexual dimorphism in growth was apparent with von Bertalanffy parameter estimates for males of L∞ = 393·8 mm, K = 0·30, t0 = 0·36 and females of L∞ = 201·1 mm, K = 0·79, t0 = 0·47. Comparison with previously published growth trajectories of the more northerly distributed conspecific Opsanus tau showed that O. beta males had a higher growth rate. Female O. beta and O. tau growth trajectories appear similar, with an indication that the former becomes asymptotic at least a year before the latter. Results are discussed in the context of temperature regimes, reproductive energy allocation and waste urea excretion in the two species.