A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the interactive effects of temperature and diet on condition indices of juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri, reared for time periods ranging from 2 to 42 days. After fish were reared for varying periods, growth, morphometric (Fulton's K) and biochemical [RNA:DNA (R:D) ratios] indices were measured. Fulton's K responded primarily to temperature, with progressive decrease in condition over time for fish reared at high temperatures. In contrast, R:D ratios were primarily affected by diet composition, with the highest values observed for fish reared on fish-based diets as opposed to vegetable-based diets. Significant effects of rearing time were also observed for Fulton's K and R:D ratios, as were some interactive treatment effects. In addition, Fulton's K and R:D ratios were not significantly correlated, perhaps due to the different periods of time integrated by each index or their relative sensitivity to lipid and protein deposition. These results highlight the complex responses of these condition indices to environmental variables and nutritional status.