This study characterized the structure and the morphocytochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the head kidney (HK) of the fat snook Centropomus parallelus. The HK is enclosed by a thin capsule of connective tissue, from which fine trabeculae originate and branch into the interior of organ. In the parenchyma, there are aggregates of lymphoid cells containing populations of lymphocytes T immunopositive for CDRO45, in a nodular arrangement, around blood vessels and melano-macrophage centres. Among the cells that constituted these aggregates and surrounded them, were macrophages and monocytes, and their precursors, with strong immunopositivity for CD68, along with cells of the granulocytic lineage in various phases of maturation positive for lysozyme and PAS. Macrophages and chromaffin and interrenal cells are also present. Ultrastructurally, the HK comprises a reticulum-endothelial stroma consisting of endothelial cells, reticulocytes of the fibroblast type and macrophage type and a parenchyma with increased cellularity, principally blood cells of the erythrocytic, granulocytic, lymphocytic, monocytic and thrombocytic series.