Two pumilios, pum1 and pum2, were identified in medaka Oryzias latipes. Oryzias latipes pum1 and pum2 are ubiquitous in the adult tissues but with specific expression in the germ cells of gonads, ovary and testis. Pum1 is expressed in the spermatogonia to spermatocytes whilst pum2 presents in spermatocytes of testis only. Oryzias latipes pum1 and pum2 are maternally supplied RNA with ubiquitous expression in the early stages, and embryonic expression of pum1 and pum2 may begin from early gastrula. Both pum1 and pum2 are expressed in the tissues including brain, eye and trunk, and both are expressed in the gonads after hatching. Taken together, Pum1 and Pum2 may play important roles in embryonic and germ cell development of O. latipes.