Association preferences and aggression intensity were investigated in relation to kin and familiarity in the self-fertilizing, clonal vertebrate, the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. Results indicated that fish preferentially associated with and exhibited less intense aggression towards members of their own genotype (kin), compared to members of a different genotype (non-kin). Furthermore, when fish were presented with stimulus groups of the same genotype that were familiar or unfamiliar, fish preferentially associated with and exhibited lower aggression intensity directed towards familiar groups. These results indicate that this species prefer to associate with both kin and familiar individuals and modulate aggression accordingly. These results are discussed with reference to the adaptive benefits of kin recognition and preferences for familiars, and place results within the context of current knowledge of the ecology of K. marmoratus.
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