The Indo-Pacific mud sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Eleotridae) is recorded for the first time in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, based on 23 specimens caught at seven localities along the northern, north-eastern, eastern and south-eastern Brazilian coast. The occurrence of males and females in different ontogenetic stages indicates that this exotic mud sleeper breeds there. This invasive species has the potential to compete for food and microhabitat with several native gobies and an endemic blenny that dwell in estuaries and mangroves, besides preying on native fishes and crustaceans.
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