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Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review

Authors

  • J. E. Johnson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Cooperative Resource Management Institute, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, VSA 1S6 Canada
      Tel.: +1 778 327 8906; email: jimj@sfu.ca
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  • D. A. Patterson,

    1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Cooperative Resource Management Institute, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, VSA 1S6 Canada
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  • E. G. Martins,

    1. Fish Ecology and Conservation Physiology Laboratory, Institute of Environmental Science and Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 Canada
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  • S. J. Cooke,

    1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Cooperative Resource Management Institute, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, VSA 1S6 Canada
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  • S. G. Hinch

    1. Centre for Applied Conservation Research, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada
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Tel.: +1 778 327 8906; email: jimj@sfu.ca

Abstract

It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival.

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