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Keywords:

  • armoured catfish;
  • chromosomal banding;
  • dispersal;
  • FISH;
  • rDNA

The first chromosomal data in Hoplosternum littorale from an isolated South American drainage in north-eastern Brazil are presented. All specimens were characterized by a diploid number (2n) of 60 chromosomes divided into three metacentric, one submetacentric and 26 acrocentric pairs; single nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) on the sixth pair; centromeric and interstitial heterochromatin; GC-rich sites on four large acrocentric chromosomes, including the NOR-bearing pair, and 5S ribosomal genes at terminal region on short arms of two acrocentric pairs. These data are invariably similar to previous reports in H. littorale from distant localities throughout South America, which contrasts with the chromosomal diversity of Callichthyidae and reinforces the role of human activities on the dispersal and colonization of this fish.