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Keywords:

  • ram;
  • tactics;
  • Etruscan;
  • Illyrian;
  • Macedonian;
  • Roman

Representations of ram-like structures at the stern of warships mainly dating from the 5th century BC through to Late Antiquity suggest that ramming by the stern was an Illyrian tactic. When the Illyrian type of light warship, the liburnian, was introduced into Macedonian (?), Etruscan, and Roman navies, so apparently were rams. Coin images suggest a floruit in Late Roman fleets.