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Archaeological Reconnaissance of the 1865 American-Built Sub Marine Explorer at Isla San Telmo, Archipielago de las Perlas, Panama



A wrecked submarine lying in the inter-tidal zone of Isla San Telmo, off Panama's coast, has been identified as Sub Marine Explorer, a rare surviving example of a mid-19th-century submersible. One of the world's first successful lock-out dive-chambers, the craft had a fatal design aspect that ultimately harmed its crew and may have killed the builder through the effects of pressure. Documentation of the submarine provides a detailed understanding of this technologically advanced but flawed craft.

© 2006 The Author