Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides)

Authors

  • Jose G. Tello,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
    2. Department of Biology, Long Island University, 1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
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  • Robert G. Moyle,

    1. Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
    2. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Research Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
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  • Daniel J. Marchese,

    1. Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
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  • Joel Cracraft

    1. Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
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*Corresponding author:
E-mail address:jose.tello@liu.edu

Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among the Tyrannides were assessed using over 4000 base pairs of nuclear recombination activating 1 (RAG-1) and 2 (RAG-2) DNA sequence data from about 93% of all described genera, which represents the most complete assessment of relationships for this diverse New World radiation to date. With this sampling we propose a significantly expanded interpretation of higher-level relationships within the group. The Tyrannides are shown to be comprised of six major lineages, all of which represent traditional family-level taxa (sensuFitzpatrick, 2004a and Snow, 2004a,b; del Hoyo et al., 2004): (i) manakins (Pipridae); (ii) cotingas (Cotingidae); (iii) the sharpbill (Oxyruncus) + onychorhynchine flycatchers (Onychorhynchini); (iv) tityrines (Tityridae); (v) rhynchocycline flycatchers (Rhynchocyclidae); and (vi) the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). In addition, the RAG data recovered isolated lineages with uncertain relationships, including Neopipo, Platyrinchus, Piprites, and Tachuris. The Pipridae are the sister-group to all the other Tyrannides. Within the latter, the clade ((Oxyruncidae + Tityridae) + Cotingidae) is the sister-group of the Tyrannoidea. Within the Tyrannoidea, the Rhynchocyclidae and their allies are sisters to Neopipo + Tyrannidae. Using our phylogenetic hypothesis, we propose the first comprehensive phylogenetic classification that attempts to achieve isometry between the tree and a classification scheme using subordination and phyletic sequencing. This study thus provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the evolution of this diverse New World assemblage, and identifies many avenues for further systematic study.

 © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.

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