The Comparative Anatomy of the Tongues of the Mammalia.-III. Family 2. Cercopithecidæ: with notes on the comparative physiology of the tongues and stomachs of the Langurs.



  • 1The tongues of the Cercopithecidæ do not contain many pigmented forms, and those which are coloured vary in the distribution of the pigment. The tongue of Cercopithecus patas may be yellow or colourless.
  • 2The conical and fungiform papillæ, with few exceptions, exhibit the usual type of arrangement. Only in Cercopithecus cethiops was it different.
  • 3The vallate papillae form a triangle, V, or double pair, but the pattern is not characteristic in any genus.
  • 4The lateral organs appear as rows of sulci and flat laminae, or as rows of oval or rod-like bodies.
  • 5The frenal lamella is entire or bifid, even in different examples of the same species, so it is not of value for purposes of classification.
  • 6The glands on the base of the tongue are largest in the Langurs, in which they occupy a large area. They are not very prominent in the Cercopitheques nor in the Macaques; in the former the duct orifices are larger than in the latter. In the Mangabeys and Baboons they form prominent masses with large orifices on the sides of the base of the tongue. These structures are, therefore, of the greatest value in classifying the tongues of the Cercopithecidse.
  • 7Plicæ fimbriatæ, lytta, foramen caecum, and Apical Gland of Nuhn or Blandin are absent in the adult tongue. Plicæ fimbriatee may, however, be present in very young tongues.