*Communicated by Prof. R. Douglas Laurie, F.Z.S.
Antagonism between two Heavy Metals in their Toxic Action on Freshwater Animals
Article first published online: 21 AUG 2009
1939 The Zoological Society of London
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
Volume A108, Issue 4, pages 481–499, February 1939
How to Cite
Jones, J. R. E. (1939), Antagonism between two Heavy Metals in their Toxic Action on Freshwater Animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, A108: 481–499. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1939.tb00036.x
- Issue published online: 6 JUL 2010
- Article first published online: 21 AUG 2009
- Received April 28, 1938: Read October 18, 1938.
- 1A brief review is given of previous work on antagonism.
- 2Lead nitrate and copper nitrate are highly toxic to Polycelis nigra (Müller). Lead nitrate is the more toxic salt at high concentrations, copper nitrate is the more toxic at low concentrations.
- 3The addition of lead nitrate to a solution of copper nitrate reduces its toxicity to Polycelis. At any particular copper concentration the addition of increasing quantities of lead nitrate at first prolongs the survival time, which attains a maximum at 0–005 N Pb; with addition of further lead nitrate the survival time shortens, and at high lead concentrations the mixture solutions become more toxic than the pure copper solution. With decrease in the copper nitrate concentration the relative prolongation of the survival time at 0–005 N Pb increases.
- 4Generally similar results are observed with Oammarus pulex (L.).
- 5Lead nitrate also reduces the toxicity of copper nitrate to Tubifex tubifex Müller, and the tadpole of the frog, Rana temporaria temporaria L.
- 6No case has been observed in which copper nitrate reduces the toxicity of a lead nitrate solution, and the antagonistic action of these salts thus appears to be of the non-reciprocal type.
- 7The results are discussed in relation to the theories of other workers on the mechanism of antagonistic salt action.