Miocene and Post-Miocene Proboscidea from East Africa.


  • *Communicated by Martin A. C. Hinton, F.B.S., F.Z.S.


Deinotherium (Kaup). The occurrence of Deinoiherium in Pleistocene deposits in Africa is now well known. The material from Kanam appears to belong to the species Deinotherium bozasi (Arambourg), originally described from the Omo River deposits. The Kanam teeth are slightly smaller than those from Olduvai, and may possibly be a more primitive form. This, however, is inconclusive owing to the great range of variation in the size of Deinotherium teeth.

Pentalopkodon (Falconer). The material from Kanam which is assigned to this genus may equally be compared with Dibunodon arvernensis of Europe, and Pentalopkodon sivalensis of Asia. The Pleistocene fauna of Africa appears, in the light of present knowledge, to have affinities with that of Asia rather than that of Europe, and for this reason the material is here taken to represent a geographical race of the Indian form Pentalopkodon sivalensis.

Stegodon (Falconer and Cautley). A fragmentary skull of Stegodon was found near Lake Edward, in deposits apparently contemporary with those of Kaiso. This is the second occurrence of this genus in Africa, and the teeth appear to be more advanced than those of S. clifti from the Pliocene of India, whilst differing in various respects from those of the other Asiatic species. The material is referred to a new species 8. fuchsi, named after the discoverer.

Archidiskodon (Pohlig). In the British Museum collections the material referred to Elepkas planifrons shows many variations, which can be arranged in an ascending series from the primitive form which Matsumoto calls Leith-Adamsia (B.M. No. 36695) to the more advanced form (No. 15351). In the latter the structure of the ridges is very similar to that which is found in the primitive forms of Elephas (Archidiskodon) meridionalis. The Kanam series of deposits has yielded the remains of a variety of A. planifrons which is not exactly reproduced in the Indian material, but which has distinct affinities to the more primitive part of the planifrons series. In the same deposit at Kanam, however, there occurs another representative of the Archidiskodon which appears to correspond to the primitive forms of A. meridionalis. Thus, if these forms do show an ascending series, the occurrence of two widely differing varieties in a single deposit suggests that the more primitive of the two may be a survival from earlier times, which perhaps represents an almost unchanged branch of the primitive stock.

Palœoloxodon (Matsumoto). An African race of Palœoloxodon antiquus was first described from the deposits of Olduvai, in Tanganyika, under the subspecific name P. a. recki (Dietrich). Its occurrence at Kanjira indicates that the deposits of this locality are of the same general age as those of the Olduvai series.