A description is given of the palaeoniscoid fauna from the Upper Witteberg series of South Africa. This fauna includes seven new genera and species–Australichthys longidorsalts, Aestuarichthys fulcratus, Willomorichthys striatulus, Sundayichthys elegantulus, Dwykia analensis, Adroichthys tuberculatus, and Soetendalichthys cromptoni, while three new species are added the genus Mentzichthys Jubb, M. jubbi, M. maraisi and M. theroni. Two new families are erected, the Willomorichthyidae and the Dwykiidae and the whole fauna is believed to be Lower Carboniferous (Visean) in age.