Geographical distribution of African freshwater fishes is discussed with emphasis on the effects of major continental features, hydrographic history, and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. Differences in the modes of dispersal and biological interactions among various categories of fishes, ecological as well as phyletic, have also had marked effects on distribution.
The African continent can be divided into ten ichthyofaunal provinces. The geography of these provinces and composition of their fish faunas is briefly described. The paper concludes with a consideration of the faunistic relationships of African lakes with endemic fishes.