Pronophiline butterflies (Satyridae) of the three Andean Cordilleras of Colombia



The 125 species of the satyrid butterfly tribe Pronophilini known from the three Andean Cordilleras of Colombia are listed, together with two species whose Colombian status is doubtful. The biological, ecological and biogeographical features of the tribe are described, using the listed species as examples. The features include restriction to moist conditions at high altitudes, endemism in the Cordilleras and in areas and on slopes within them, allopatric speciation and subspeciation, parapatric distributions of related species up the altitude gradients, intraspecific variation and polymorphism and apparent mimicry. The criteria used for classifying the taxa and assessing their relationships are discussed. Seventeen new species, three new subspecies and one new form are described. At the species level, 11 new synonymies are established, two synonymies are rejected, the status of 15 other taxa is revised, and 23 new combinations are made. At the generic level, two new synonymies are established, and one genus is resurrected.