A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae)

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Abstract

We present the first cladistic analysis focused at the tribal and subfamily level of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae. The data matrix of 82 characters scored for 57 arancid genera of 6 subfamilies and 19 tribes (and 13 genera from 8 outgroup families) resulted in 16 slightly different, most parsimonious trees. Successive weighting corroborated 62 of the 66 informative nodes on these cladograms; one is recommended as the ‘working’ araneid phylogcny. The sister group of Araneidae is all other Araneoidea. Araneidae comprises two major clades: the subfamily Araneinae, and the ‘argiopoid’ clade, which includes all other subfamilies and most tribes (((Gasteracanthinae, Caerostreae), (((Micratheninae, Xylcthreae), Eruyosaccus), (Eurycorminae, Arciinae)), Cyrlarachninae), ((Argiopinae, Cyrtophorinae), Arachnureae)). Cyrtarachneae and Mastophoreae are united in a new subfamily, Cyr-tarachninae. The spiny orb-weavers alone (Gasteracanthinae and Micratheninae) are not monophyletic. The mimetid subfamily Arciinae and the ‘tetragnathid’ genus Zygiella are araneids, but .Nephila (and other tetragnathids) are not. On the preferred tree, web decorations (stabilimenta) evolved 9 times within 15 genera, and were lost once. The use of silk to subdue prey evolved once in cribellate and four times in ecribillate orb weavers. Sexual size dimorphism evolved once in nephilines, twice in araneids, and reverted to monomorphism five times. Evolution in other genitalic and somatic characters is also assessed; behavioral and spinneret features arc most consistent (male genitalia, leg and prosomal features least consistent) on the phylogeny.

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