This paper offers a detailed taxonomic revision of all Canarian Pholcus species described before 2003, all of which are newly described and newly illustrated. Pholcus guadarfia sp. nov. is described, while a neotype for Pholcus malpaisensis Wunderlich, 1992 is also provided. In addition, we propose Pholcus gomerae Wunderlich, 1980 as a senior synonym for Pholcus gomeroides Wunderlich, 1987. More importantly, cladistic analysis based on the morphological characters of the Macaronesian Pholcus species was conducted for the first time. Parsimony analyses of 73 morphological characters revealed the close relationships between those species from the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Macaronesian enclave in Africa (between Agadir and Nouadhibou). © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 151, 59–114.