A taxonomic account of the genus Philautus from the Western Ghats of India is presented. All known species of this genus, their type specimens, current taxonomic status, and geographical distribution are revised, based on museum and field studies. In addition, 12 new species are described and compared with other members of the genus, especially with the name-bearing types of Indian Philautus. Diagnoses, detailed descriptions, illustrations, data on distribution, and natural history are provided for all species, and their relationships are estimated using molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial data sets. No reliable observations have been made for two species, Philautus chalazodes (Günther, 1876) and Philautus flaviventris (Boulenger, 1882), since the original descriptions in the 19th century. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 155, 374–444.