Molecular phylogeny in endemic weevils: revision of the genera of Macaronesian Cryptorhynchinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors

  • PETER E. STÜBEN,

    Corresponding author
    1. CURCULIO-Institute, Hauweg 62, D-41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany
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    • The authors wish it to be known that in their opinion, both authors should be regarded as joint first authors.

  • JONAS J. ASTRIN

    Corresponding author
    1. ZFMK: Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Molekularlabor, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany
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    • The authors wish it to be known that in their opinion, both authors should be regarded as joint first authors.


E-mail: p.stueben@t-online.de; j.astrin.zfmk@uni-bonn.de

Abstract

A molecular phylogeny and lineage age estimates are presented for the Macaronesian representatives of the weevil subfamily Cryptorhynchinae, using two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S). The Bayesian reconstruction is supplemented by observations on morphology, ecology, and reproductive biology. The present study often corroborates the groups previously outlined in higher-level informal taxonomies. These and further groups are now assigned new taxonomic status. The following genera and subgenera are described (formerly Acalles): Aeoniacallesgen. nov., Canariacallesgen. nov., Ficusacallesgen. nov., Madeiracallesgen. nov., Silvacalles gen. nov. (with Tolpiacallessubgen. nov., Tagasastacallessubgen. nov.), Sonchiacallesgen. nov., Echiumacallesgen. nov. (monotypic), Lauriacallesgen. nov. (monotypic), and Pseudodichromacallesgen. nov. (monotypic; formerly Dichromacalles). For the western Palaearctic genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 the first subgenus Origoacallessubgen. nov. is described and for the genus Onyxacalles Stüben, 1999 the first subgenus Araneacallessubgen. nov.; Paratorneuma Roudier 1956 resyn. Except for one species of Acalles (Origoacalles), all of these new higher taxa are endemic to the Macaronesian Islands. All new taxa are presented, together with their host plants and further data, in a synoptic tabular overview. Based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis, we advocate the hypothesis that the evolution of the species in the new genera (of which most group into a ‘Macaronesian clade’) began in the comparatively arid succulent bush zone and that the shady and humid laurel forest of the thermo-Canarian and thermo-Madeiran zone was entered much later. Our reconstruction implies that the Canarian and Madeiran archipelagos were colonized by Cryptorhynchinae at least seven times from the continent but saw only one considerable adaptive radiation. It also becomes apparent that it is the ancestor species of the genus Canariacalles– and not Pseudodichromacalles– that features a close connection to the south-western European and north-western African species of Dichromacalles s.s. Finally, a key is presented for all genera and subgenera of the Macaronesian Cryptorhynchinae.

© 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 160, 40–87.

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