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Phylogenetic interrelationships, taxonomy, and reductive evolution in the Neotropical electric fish genus Hypopygus (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Gymnotiformes)
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Linnean Society of London
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Volume 163, Issue 4, pages 1096–1156, December 2011
How to Cite
DE SANTANA, C. D. and CRAMPTON, W. G. R. (2011), Phylogenetic interrelationships, taxonomy, and reductive evolution in the Neotropical electric fish genus Hypopygus (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Gymnotiformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163: 1096–1156. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00736.x
- Issue published online: 25 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2011
- Received 30 April 2010; accepted for publication 24 January 2011
- Amazon basin;
A phylogenetic reconstruction of the Neotropical electric fish genus Hypopygus based on 47 parsimony-informative morphological characters is presented. A series of synapomorphies support the hypothesis of monophyly of Hypopygus, and partially resolve species-level relationships within the genus. Hypopygus species are recognized here as miniaturized fishes based on two criteria; first, a derived condition of diminutive body size, and; second, the presence of a suite of reductive morphological characters, including partial or total losses, simplifications, and reductions of the anal-fin rays, scales, cranial bones, and laterosensory canal system. Reductive characters associated with miniaturization comprise 45% of the total number of characters in the phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus. Miniaturization and reductive morphological evolution in Hypopygus are discussed here in the phylogenetic context. A taxonomic revision of Hypopygus is presented, in which five new species are described, two species previously assigned to the genus are redescribed, and a single known species of Stegostenopos is redescribed and included in Hypopygus as a junior synonym. Distribution maps and a key for all eight valid species of Hypopygus are provided, based on the examination of 5014 catalogued museum specimens.
© 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 163, 1096–1156.