Tobacco use continues to be a serious public health issue. Although declining in middle- to high-income countries, smoking rates are often higher in disadvantaged communities and vulnerable groups. Knowledge about tobacco-related harm also tends to be incomplete. To date, legislation has focused on public domains, but the pressure to protect children in the home and other private spaces is fast becoming a focal point for potential legislation and intervention. Negotiating the boundary between privacy and protection is likely to become a matter of professional concern.