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The controlled crystallization of amorphous second phases in SiAlON is demonstrated in two systems. In a magnesia-containing SiAlON, cordierite crystallized on annealing after hot-pressing. Similarly, garnet crystallized in yttria-contain-ing SiAlON. The resulting microstructures are characterized by TEM and qualitatively related to changes on room-temperature toughness and high-temperature deformation.