Low-Temperature Sintering of Lead-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics


  • Contributing Editor—Qichang Xu


The low-temperature sintering of lead-based piezoelectric ceramics has been studied. The sintering temperature of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics could be reduced from ∼ 1250° to ∼960°C by the addition of a small amount of the lower-melting frit, B2O3–Bi2O3—CdO. It exhibited the following dielectric and piezoelectric properties: Kp= 0.52 to 0.58, Qm= 1000, εT330= 800 to 1000, tan δ= 50 × 10−4, ρ= 7.56 to 7.64 g/cm3. Ceramics with the aid of suitable dopants (CdO, SiO2, and excess PbO) in the Pb-(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3—PZT family could be sintered at 860° to 900°C. For these materials, Kp= 0.56 to 0.61, Qm= 1000, εT330= 1500 to 2000, tan δ≤ 50 × 10−4, ρ= 7.80 to 8.03 g/cm3. The microstructure, sintering mechanism, and the effects of various impure additions have been analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.