The addition of Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and HfO2 enhanced the transformability of Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystal (Y-TZP), which was indicated by an increase in phase transformation temperatures and fracture toughness of Y-TZP. Comparison of the alloying effects of these oxides on the transformability and crystal structure of Y-TZP suggested that an alloying oxide which increases the c/a axial ratio (tetragonality) of TZP also increases the transformability. Empirical equations to predict the tetragonality are proposed. Calculated tetragonalities showed good agreement with measured values in the systems ZrO2-Y2O3-Ta2O5, -Nb2O5, and -HfO2.
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