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A ceramic fuel cell in an all solid-state energy conversion device that produces electricity by electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant gases across an ionic conducting oxide. Current ceramic fuel cells use an oxygen-ion conductor or a proton conductor as the electrolyte and operate at high temperatures (>600°C). Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications. This paper reviews the science and technology of ceramic fuel cells and discusses the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell. The emphasis is given to the discussion of component materials (especially, ZrO2 electrolyte, nickel/ZrO2 cermet anode, LaMnO3 cathode, and LaCrO3 interconnect), gas reactions at the electrodes, stack designs, and processing techniques used in the fabrication of required ceramic structures.