We have coupled electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and polarization–voltage measurements to understand the effects of reducing ambients on the remanent polarization and density of paramagnetic centers in BaTiO3, single crystals. Two types of reducing ambients were explored; one was done under vacuum (slightly reducing) and the second was performed in forming gas (very reducing). It is found that the vacuum anneal caused a reduction in the remanent polarization and a concomitant decrease in the isolated Fe3+ EPR resonance. The Fe3+–Vo complex EPR signal was relatively unaffected by this vacuum anneal. By injecting charge using an ultraviolet (UV) light and an applied bias combination, the polarization and the isolated Fe3+ signal intensity were restored, thereby suggesting that the suppression of the remanent polarization is due to trapping of electronic charge at the domain walls. For the forming gas anneal, we observe a much larger decrease in remanent polarization with an accompanying decrease in both the isolated Fe3+ and Fe3+–Vo complex EPR signals. For this anneal, charge injection by the UV light/bias combination did not restore the polarization nor the EPR densities. The remanent polarization, the isolated Fe3+, and the Fe3+–VoVo complex could be restored only by a reoxidizing anneal, suggesting that ionic defects {oxygen vacancies) are now responsible for pinning the domain walls. Collectively, these results suggest reducing anneals can suppress the amount of switchable polarization in BaTiO3 by either electronic or ionic trapping mechanisms.