NAb have been considered to be an important component of a protective immune response to HIV-1, yet the relationship between the capacity of HIV-1 NAb, the conserved neutralization epitopes and disease progression has been unclear. To gain a better understanding of the protective roles that NAb and conserved neutralization epitopes could play in LTNP, twenty-eight HIV-1-infected subjects were investigated by evaluation of the concentrations of HIV-1 NAb and conserved neutralization epitopes, using single-round PBMC neutralization assay and sequencing. Our study revealed that the concentration of NAb in LTNP was significantly higher than that in subjects with asymptomatic HIV (P < 0.05) and AIDS (P < 0.01). No amino acids substitutions were found in the conserved epitopes of the HIV-1 gp120 region in LTNP, whereas the viruses circulating both in persons with asymptomatic HIV and those with AIDS had amino acid substitutions in their conserved neutralization epitopes. This study suggests that high levels of NAb and stable epitopes in gp120 could play a crucial role in protection against disease progression.