SCG is a 6-branched 1,3-β-d-glucan, which are major cell wall structural components in fungi. Leukocytes from DBA/1 and DBA/2 mice are highly sensitive to SCG, producing cytokines such as GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12p70, but not IL-6. GM-CSF plays a key biological role in this activity. In the present study, we examined the effect of giving i.p. SCG to DBA/2 mice on cytokine production in vitro. SCG was given i.p. to DBA/2 mice on day 0. Splenocytes were prepared on day 7 and cultured in the presence of SCG in vitro. The levels of cytokine production induced by SCG in vitro were lower in the cells from SCG-treated mice than in control mice. Expression of the β-glucan receptor, dectin-1, in SCG-treated mice was comparable with that shown in control mice. However, the consumption of exogenously added rmGM-CSF in vitro was observed in SCG-treated mice. The addition of a large amount of rmGM-CSF to the culture medium resulted in larger amounts of TNF-α and IL-6 in SCG-treated mice than in normal mice. These results suggested that GM-CSF was closely related with the reactivity of β-glucan. Giving SCG increased the number of macrophages and granulocytes in the spleen. These results suggested that in SCG-treated mice, a change of cell population would be related to modulation of the profile of cytokine production induced by SCG in vitro.