• 1
    Wang M, Tran J.H., Jacoby G.A., Zhang Y., Wang F., Hooper D.C. (2003) Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 22428.
  • 2
    Martinez-Martinez L., Pascual L.A., Jacopy G.A. (1998) Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid. Lancet 351: 7979.
  • 3
    Tran J.H., Jacoby G.A., Hooper D.C. (2005) Interaction of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance protein QnrA with Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 11825.
  • 4
    Robicsek A., Strahilevitz J., Jacoby G.A., Mark M., Abbanat A., Park C.H., Bush K., Hooper D.C. (2006) Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Nat Med 12: 838.
  • 5
    Yamane K., Wachino J., Suzuki S., Arakawa Y. (2008) Plasmid-mediated qepA Gene among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52: 15646.
  • 6
    Yamane K., Wachino J., Suzuki S., Kimura K., Shibata N., Kato H., Shibayama K., Konda T., Arakawa Y. (2007) New plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone efflux pump, QepA, found in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 335460.
  • 7
    Wang A, Yang Y, Lu Q, Wang Y, Chen Y, Deng L, Ding H, Deng Q, Wang L, Shen X. (2008) Occurrence of qnr-positive clinical isolates in Klebsiella pneumoniae producing ESBL or AmpC-type beta-lactamase from five pediatric hospitals in China. FEMS Microbiol Lett 283: 1126.
  • 8
    Jacoby G.A., Han P. (1996) Detection of extended-spectrum -beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 34: 90811.
  • 9
    Tzelepi E.P., Giakkoupi D., Sofianou V., Loukova A., Kemeroglou A., Tsakris A. (2000) Detection of extended-spectrum -lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. J Clin Microbiol 38: 5426.
  • 10
    Yagi T., Wachino J., Kurokawa H., et al . (2005) Practical methods using boronic acid compounds for identification of class C beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 43: 25518.
  • 11
    Briñas L., Moreno M.A., Zarazaga M., Porrero C., Sáenz Y., García M., Dominguez L., Torres C. (2003) Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal sample isolates from healthy chickens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 20568.
  • 12
    Liu J.H., Wei S.Y., Ma J.Y., Zeng Z.L., Lü D.H., Yang G.X., Chen ZL. (2007) Detection and characterization of CTX-M and CMY-2 beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates from farm animals in Guangdong Province of China. Int J Antimicrob Agents 29: 57681.
  • 13
    Park C.H., Robicsek A., Jacoby G.A., Sahm D., Hooper D.C. (2006) Prevalence in the United States of aac(6’)-Ib-cr encoding a ciprofloxacin modifying enzyme. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 39535.
  • 14
    Robicsek A., Strahilevitz J., Sahm D.F., Jacoby G.A., Hooper D.C. (2006) qnr prevalence in ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 28724.
  • 15
    Wu J.J., Ko W.C., Tsai S.H., Yan J.J. (2007) Prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants QnrA, QnrB, and QnrS among clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae in a Taiwanese hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 12237.
  • 16
    Yue L., Jiang H.X., Liao X.P., Liu J.H., Li S.J., Chen X.Y., Chen C.X., Lü D.H., Liu Y.H. (2008) Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnr genes in poultry and swine clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol 132: 41420.
  • 17
    Rodríguez-Martínez J.M., Velasco C., Pascual A., García I., Martínez-Martínez L. (2006) Correlation of quinolone resistance levels and differences in basal and quinolone-induced expression from three qnrA-containing plasmids. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 4405.
  • 18
    Perez-Perez F.J., Hanson N.D. (2002) Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase genes in clinical isolates by using multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40: 215362.
  • 19
    Wang M., Sahm D.F., Jacoby G.A., Hooper D.C. (2004) Emerging plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance associated with the qnr gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 12959.
  • 20
    Harris A.D., Kotetishvili M. et al . (2007) How important is patient-to-patient transmission in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli acquisition? Am J Infect Control 35: 97101.
  • 21
    Jiang Y, Zhou Z, Qian Y, Wei Z, Yu Y, Hu S, Li L. (2008) Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr and aac(6’)-Ib-cr in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 61: 10036.
  • 22
    Poirel L., Rodriguez-Martinez J.M., Mammeri H., Liard A., Nordmann P.(2005) Origin of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 35235.
  • 23
    Ma J., Zeng Z., Chen Z., Xu X., Wang X., Deng Y., Lü D., Huang L., Zhang Y., Liu J., Wang M. (2009) High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr, aac(6’)-Ib-cr, and qepA among ceftiofur-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from companion and food-producing animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53: 51924.
  • 24
    Lavigne J.P., Marchandin H., Delmas J. et al . (2006) qnrA in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 42248.
  • 25
    Poirel L., Leviandier C., Nordmann P. (2006) Prevalence and genetic analysis of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants QnrA and QnrS in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a French university hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 39927.
  • 26
    Mammeri H., Van De Loo M., Poirel L., Martinez-Martinez L., Nordmann P. (2005) Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in Europe. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 716.
  • 27
    Jeong J.Y., Yoon H.J., Kim E.S., Lee Y., Choi S.H., Kim N.J., Woo J.H., Kim Y.S. (2005) Detection of qnr in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Korea. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 25224.
  • 28
    Yang H, Chen H, Yang Q, Chen M, Wang H. (2008) The high prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnr and aac(6’)-Ib-cr in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from nine teaching hospitals in China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52: 426873.
  • 29
    Pitout J.D., Wei Y., Church D.L., Gregson D.B. (2008) Surveillance for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae within the Calgary Health Region, Canada: the emergence of aac(6’)-Ib-cr. J Antimicrob Chemother 61: 9991002.
  • 30
    Fihman V., Lartigue M.F., Jacquier H., Meunier F., Schnepf N., Raskine L., Riahi J., Sanson-le Pors M.J., Berçot B. (2008) Appearance of aac(6’)-Ib-cr gene among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a French hospital. J Infectio 56: 4549.
  • 31
    Kanj S.S., Corkill J.E., Kanafani Z.A., Araj G.F., Hart C.A., Jaafar R., Matar G.M. (2008) Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates at a tertiary-care centre in Lebanon. Clin Microbiol Infect 14: 5014.
  • 32
    Yu Y., Ji S., Chen Y. et al . (2007) Resistance of strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and genotype distribution in China. J Infect 54: 537.
  • 33
    Robicsek A., Jacoby G.A., Hooper D.C. (2006) The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 62940.