• 1
    Ravnskov U. (2003) High cholesterol may protect against infections and atherosclerosis. QJM 96: 92734.
  • 2
    Van Amersfoort E.S., Van Berkel T.J., Kuiper J. (2003) Receptors, mediators, and mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Clin Microbiol Rev 16: 379414.
  • 3
    Khovidhunkit W., Kim M.S., Memon R.A., Shigenaga J.K., Moser A.H., Feingold K.R., Grunfeld C. (2004) Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host. J Lipid Res 45: 116996.
  • 4
    Wendel M., Paul R., Heller A. (2007) Lipoproteins in inflammation and sepsis. II. Clinical aspects. Intensive Care Med 33: 2535.
  • 5
    Murch O., Collin M., Hinds C., Thiemermann C. (2007) Lipoproteins in inflammation and sepsis. I. Basic science. Intensive Care Med 33: 1324.
  • 6
    Pajkrt D., Lerch P.G., Van Der Poll T., Levi M., Illi M., Doran J.E., Arnet B., Van Den Ende A., Ten Cate J.W., Van Deventer S.J. (1997) Differential effects of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein on coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation during human endotoxemia. Thromb Haemost 77: 3037.
  • 7
    Arnaud G., Dominique T., Khalid A.T., Marika R., Morvarid Shir M., Dominique B.-R., Hind B., Annie B., Zera T., Cécile G., Nicolas C., Eric O.-D., Richard M., Didier L. (2009) Ex vivo effects of high-density lipoprotein exposure on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in patients with severe cirrhosis. Hepatology 49: 17584.
  • 8
    Bhakdi S., Tranum-Jensen J., Utermann G., Fussle R. (1983) Binding and partial inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin by human plasma low density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem 258: 5899904.
  • 9
    Feingold K.R., Funk J.L., Moser A.H., Shigenaga J.K., Rapp J.H., Grunfeld C. (1995) Role for circulating lipoproteins in protection from endotoxin toxicity. Infect Immun 63: 204146.
  • 10
    Shiflett A.M., Bishop J.R., Pahwa A., Hajduk S.L. (2005) Human high density lipoproteins are platforms for the assembly of multi-component innate immune complexes. J Biol Chem 280: 3257885.
  • 11
    Memon R.A., Staprans I., Noor M., Holleran W.M., Uchida Y., Moser A.H., Feingold K.R., Grunfeld C. (2000) Infection and inflammation induce LDL oxidation in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20: 153642.
  • 12
    Bochkov V.N., Kadl A., Huber J., Gruber F., Binder B.R., Leitinger N. (2002) Protective role of phospholipid oxidation products in endotoxin-induced tissue damage. Nature 419: 7781.
  • 13
    Miller Y.I., Viriyakosol S., Binder C.J., Feramisco J.R., Kirkland T.N., Witztum J.L. (2003) Minimally modified LDL binds to CD14, induces macrophage spreading via TLR4/MD-2, and inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. J Biol Chem 278: 156168.
  • 14
    Walton K.A., Cole A.L., Yeh M., Subbanagounder G., Krutzik S.R., Modlin R.L., Lucas R.M., Nakai J., Smart E.J., Vora D.K., Berliner J.A. (2003) Specific phospholipid oxidation products inhibit ligand activation of Toll-like receptors 4 and 2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23: 1197203.
  • 15
    Bochkov V.N., Mechtcheriakova D., Lucerna M., Huber J., Malli R., Graier W.F., Hofer E., Binder B.R., Leitinger N. (2002) Oxidized phospholipids stimulate tissue factor expression in human endothelial cells via activation of ERK/EGR-1 and Ca++/NFAT. Blood 99: 199206.
  • 16
    Samanovic M., Molina-Portela M.P., Chessler A.D., Burleigh B.A., Raper J. (2009) Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000276.
  • 17
    Courtney H.S., Zhang Y.-M., Frank M.W., Rock C.O. (2006) Serum opacity factor, a streptococcal virulence factor that binds to apolipoproteins A-I and A-II and disrupts high density lipoprotein structure. J Biol Chem 281: 551521.
  • 18
    Owens B.J., Anantharamaiah G.M., Kahlon J.B., Srinivas R.V., Compans R.W., Segrest J.P. (1990) Apolipoprotein A-I and its amphipathic helix peptide analogues inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-induced syncytium formation. J Clin Invest 86: 114250.
  • 19
    Singh I.P., Chopra A.K., Coppenhaver D.H., Ananatharamaiah G.M., Baron S. (1999) Lipoproteins account for part of the broad non-specific antiviral activity of human serum. Antiviral Res 42: 2118.
  • 20
    Superti F., Seganti L., Marchetti M., Marziano M.L., Orsi N. (1992) SA-11 rotavirus binding to human serum lipoproteins. Med Microbiol Immunol 181: 7786.
  • 21
    Van Lenten B.J., Wagner A.C., Anantharamaiah G.M., Garber D.W., Fishbein M.C., Adhikary L., Nayak D.P., Hama S., Navab M., Fogelman A.M. (2002) Influenza infection promotes macrophage traffic into arteries of mice that is prevented by D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide. Circulation 106: 112732.
  • 22
    Bartosch B., Verney G., Dreux M., Donot P., Morice Y., Penin F., Pawlotsky J.M., Lavillette D., Cosset F.L. (2005) An interplay between hypervariable region 1 of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein, the scavenger receptor BI, and high-density lipoprotein promotes both enhancement of infection and protection against neutralizing antibodies. J Virol 79: 821729.
  • 23
    Voisset C., Callens N., Blanchard E., Op De Beeck A., Dubuisson J., Vu-Dac N. (2005) High density lipoproteins facilitate hepatitis C virus entry through the scavenger receptor class B type I. J Biol Chem 280: 77939.
  • 24
    Dreux M., Pietschmann T., Granier C., Voisset C., Ricard-Blum S., Mangeot P.E., Keck Z., Foung S., Vu-Dac N., Dubuisson J., Bartenschlager R., Lavillette D., Cosset F.L. (2006) High density lipoprotein inhibits hepatitis C virus-neutralizing antibodies by stimulating cell entry via activation of the scavenger receptor BI. J Biol Chem 281: 1828595.
  • 25
    Netea M.G., Curfs J.H., Demacker P.N., Meis J.F., Van Der Meer J.W., Kullberg B.J. (1999) Infusion of lipoproteins into volunteers enhances the growth of Candida albicans. Clin Infect Dis 28: 114851.
  • 26
    Thompson P.A., Berbee J.F., Rensen P.C., Kitchens R.L. (2008) Apolipoprotein A-II augments monocyte responses to LPS by suppressing the inhibitory activity of LPS-binding protein. Innate Immun 14: 36574.
  • 27
    Netea M.G., Demacker P.N., Kullberg B.J., Boerman O.C., Verschueren I., Stalenhoef A.F., Van Der Meer J.W. (1996) Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice are protected against lethal endotoxemia and severe gram-negative infections. J Clin Invest 97: 136672.
  • 28
    De Bont N., Netea M.G., Demacker P.N., Verschueren I., Kullberg B.J., Van Dijk K.W., Van Der Meer J.W., Stalenhoef A.F. (1999) Apolipoprotein E knock-out mice are highly susceptible to endotoxemia and Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. J Lipid Res 40: 6805.
  • 29
    Netea M.G., Joosten L.A., Keuter M., Wagener F., Stalenhoef A.F., Van Der Meer J.W., Kullberg B.J. (2009) Circulating lipoproteins are a crucial component of host defense against invasive Salmonella typhimurium infection. PLoS ONE 4: e4237.
  • 30
    Makoveichuk E., Cherepanov P., Lundberg S., Forsberg A., Olivecrona G. (2003) pH6 antigen of Yersinia pestis interacts with plasma lipoproteins and cell membranes. J Lipid Res 44: 32030.
  • 31
    Han R., Caswell C.C., Lukomska E., Keene D.R., Pawlowski M., Bujnicki J.M., Kim J.K., Lukomski S. (2006) Binding of the low-density lipoprotein by streptococcal collagen-like protein Scl1 of Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol 61: 35167.
  • 32
    Roselaar S.E., Daugherty A. (1998) Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice have impaired innate immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. J Lipid Res 39: 17403.
  • 33
    Martens G.W., Arikan M.C., Lee J., Ren F., Vallerskog T., Kornfeld H. (2008) Hypercholesterolemia impairs immunity to tuberculosis. Infect Immun 76: 346472.
  • 34
    Park K.H., Kim J.S., Lee Y.R., Moon Y.J., Hur H., Choi Y.H., Kim C.H., Kim U.H., Song E.K., Yoo W.H., Lee C.S., Kim B.S., Lee S.H., Ryu P.Y., Han M.K. (2007) Low-density lipoprotein protects Vibrio vulnificus-induced lethality through blocking lipopolysaccharide action. Exp Mol Med 39: 6738.
  • 35
    Sprong T., Netea M.G., Van Der Ley P., Verver-Jansen T.J.G., Jacobs L.E.H., Stalenhoef A., Van Der Meer J.W.M., Van Deuren M. (2004) Human lipoproteins have divergent neutralizing effects on E. coli LPS, N. meningitidis LPS, and complete Gram-negative bacteria. J Lipid Res 45: 74249.
  • 36
    Ludewig B., Jaggi M., Dumrese T., Brduscha-Riem K., Odermatt B., Hengartner H., Zinkernagel R.M. (2001) Hypercholesterolemia exacerbates virus-induced immunopathologic liver disease via suppression of antiviral cytotoxic T cell responses. J Immunol 166: 336976.
  • 37
    Netea M.G., Demacker P.N., De Bont N., Boerman O.C., Stalenhoef A.F., Van Der Meer J.W., Kullberg B.J. (1997) Hyperlipoproteinemia enhances susceptibility to acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice. Infect Immun 65: 26637.
  • 38
    Vonk A.G., De Bont N., Netea M.G., Demacker P.N., Van Der Meer J.W., Stalenhoef A.F., Kullberg B.J. (2004) Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice exhibit an increased susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis. Med Mycol 42: 3418.
  • 39
    Murphy J.E., Tedbury P.R., Homer-Vanniasinkam S., Walker J.H., Ponnambalam S. (2005) Biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian scavenger receptors. Atherosclerosis 182: 115.
  • 40
    Lehtiniemi J., Karhunen P.J., Goebeler S., Nikkari S., Nikkari S.T. (2005) Identification of different bacterial DNAs in human coronary arteries. Eur J Clin Invest 35: 136.
  • 41
    Ott S.J., El Mokhtari N.E., Musfeldt M., Hellmig S., Freitag S., Rehman A., Kuhbacher T., Nikolaus S., Namsolleck P., Blaut M., Hampe J., Sahly H., Reinecke A., Haake N., Gunther R., Kruger D., Lins M., Herrmann G., Folsch U.R., Simon R., Schreiber S. (2006) Detection of diverse bacterial signatures in atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 113: 92937.
  • 42
    Bengtsson T., Karlsson H., Gunnarsson P., Skoglund C., Elison C., Leanderson P., Lindahl M. (2008) The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis cleaves apoB-100 and increases the expression of apoM in LDL in whole blood leading to cell proliferation. J Intern Med 263: 55871.
  • 43
    Chou M.Y., Hartvigsen K., Hansen L.F., Fogelstrand L., Shaw P.X., Boullier A., Binder C.J., Witztum J.L. (2008) Oxidation-specific epitopes are important targets of innate immunity. J Intern Med 263: 47988.
  • 44
    Baumgarth N., Tung J.W., Herzenberg L.A. (2005) Inherent specificities in natural antibodies: a key to immune defense against pathogen invasion. Springer Semin Immunopathol 26: 34762.
  • 45
    Gillespie S.H., Mcwhinney P.H., Patel S., Raynes J.G., Mcadam K.P., Whiley R.A., Hardie J.M. (1993) Species of alpha-hemolytic streptococci possessing a C-polysaccharide phosphorylcholine-containing antigen. Infect Immun 61: 30767.
  • 46
    Kolberg J., Hoiby E.A., Jantzen E. (1997) Detection of the phosphorylcholine epitope in streptococci, Haemophilus and pathogenic Neisseriae by immunoblotting. Microb Pathog 22: 3219.
  • 47
    Weiser J.N., Goldberg J.B., Pan N., Wilson L., Virji M. (1998) The phosphorylcholine epitope undergoes phase variation on a 43-kilodalton protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on pili of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun 66: 42637.
  • 48
    Harnett W., Harnett M.M. (1999) Phosphorylcholine: friend or foe of the immune system? Immunol Today 20: 1259.
  • 49
    Serino L., Virji M. (2002) Genetic and functional analysis of the phosphorylcholine moiety of commensal Neisseria lipopolysaccharide. Mol Microbiol 43: 43748.
  • 50
    Mold C., Rodic-Polic B., Du Clos T.W. (2002) Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by C-reactive protein and natural antibody requires complement but not Fc gamma receptors. J Immunol 168: 637581.
  • 51
    Tanaka N., Fukuyama S., Fukuiwa T., Kawabata M., Sagara Y., Ito H.O., Miwa Y., Nagatake T., Kiyono H., Kurono Y. (2007) Intranasal immunization with phosphorylcholine induces antigen specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. Vaccine 25: 26807.
  • 52
    Binder C.J., Horkko S., Dewan A., Chang M.K., Kieu E.P., Goodyear C.S., Shaw P.X., Palinski W., Witztum J.L., Silverman G.J. (2003) Pneumococcal vaccination decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation: molecular mimicry between Streptococcus pneumoniae and oxidized LDL. Nat Med 9: 73643.
  • 53
    Goldenberg H.B., Mccool T.L., Weiser J.N. (2004) Cross-reactivity of human immunoglobulin G2 recognizing phosphorylcholine and evidence for protection against major bacterial pathogens of the human respiratory tract. J Infect Dis 190: 125463.
  • 54
    Purkall D., Tew J.G., Schenkein H.A. (2002) Opsonization of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by immunoglobulin G antibody reactive with phosphorylcholine. Infect Immun 70: 64858.
  • 55
    Lysenko E.S., Gould J., Bals R., Wilson J.M., Weiser J.N. (2000) Bacterial phosphorylcholine decreases susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptide LL-37/hCAP18 expressed in the upper respiratory tract. Infect Immun 68: 166471.
  • 56
    Weiser J.N., Pan N., Mcgowan K.L., Musher D., Martin A., Richards J. (1998) Phosphorylcholine on the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae contributes to persistence in the respiratory tract and sensitivity to serum killing mediated by C-reactive protein. J Exp Med 187: 63140.
  • 57
    Lysenko E., Richards J.C., Cox A.D., Stewart A., Martin A., Kapoor M., Weiser J.N. (2000) The position of phosphorylcholine on the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae affects binding and sensitivity to C-reactive protein-mediated killing. Mol Microbiol 35: 23445.
  • 58
    Shaw P.X., Horkko S., Chang M.K., Curtiss L.K., Palinski W., Silverman G.J., Witztum J.L. (2000) Natural antibodies with the T15 idiotype may act in atherosclerosis, apoptotic clearance, and protective immunity. J Clin Invest 105: 173140.
  • 59
    Von Hahn T., Lindenbach B.D., Boullier A., Quehenberger O., Paulson M., Rice C.M., Mckeating J.A. (2006) Oxidized low-density lipoprotein inhibits hepatitis C virus cell entry in human hepatoma cells. Hepatology 43: 93242.
  • 60
    Rodrigues C.D., Hannus M., Prudencio M., Martin C., Goncalves L.A., Portugal S., Epiphanio S., Akinc A., Hadwiger P., Jahn-Hofmann K., Rohl I., Van Gemert G.J., Franetich J.F., Luty A.J., Sauerwein R., Mazier D., Koteliansky V., Vornlocher H.P., Echeverri C.J., Mota M.M. (2008) Host scavenger receptor SR-BI plays a dual role in the establishment of malaria parasite liver infection. Cell Host Microbe 4: 27182.
  • 61
    Ishigaki Y., Katagiri H., Gao J., Yamada T., Imai J., Uno K., Hasegawa Y., Kaneko K., Ogihara T., Ishihara H., Sato Y., Takikawa K., Nishimichi N., Matsuda H., Sawamura T., Oka Y. (2008) Impact of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein removal on atherosclerosis. Circulation 118: 7583.
  • 62
    Shoenfeld Y., Wu R., Dearing L.D., Matsuura E. (2004) Are anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies pathogenic or protective? Circulation 110: 255258.
  • 63
    Giordani L., Mattioli B., Quaranta M.G., Giacomini E., Libri I., Vari R., Masella R., Viora M. (2005) Mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein inhibits the in vitro induction of the specific antibody response to Candida albicans. Free Radic Biol Med 39: 9609.
  • 64
    Mccormick S.P. (2004) Lipoprotein(a): biology and clinical importance. Clin Biochem Rev 25: 6980.
  • 65
    Berglund L., Ramakrishnan R. (2004) Lipoprotein(a): an elusive cardiovascular risk factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24: 221926.
  • 66
    Koschinsky M.L. (2006) Novel insights into Lp(a) physiology and pathogenicity: more questions than answers? Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 6: 26778.
  • 67
    Anuurad E., Boffa M.B., Koschinsky M.L., Berglund L. (2006) Lipoprotein(a): a unique risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clin Lab Med 26: 75172.
  • 68
    Lippi G., Guidi G. (2000) Lipoprotein(a): from ancestral benefit to modern pathogen? QJM 93: 7584.
  • 69
    Hoover-Plow J., Hart E., Gong Y., Shchurin A., Schneeman T. (2009) A physiological function for apolipoprotein(a): a natural regulator of the inflammatory response. Exp Biol Med 234: 2834.
  • 70
    Lahteenmaki K., Kuusela P., Korhonen T.K. (2001) Bacterial plasminogen activators and receptors. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25: 53152.
  • 71
    Lahteenmaki K., Edelman S., Korhonen T.K. (2005) Bacterial metastasis: the host plasminogen system in bacterial invasion. Trends Microbiol 13: 7985.
  • 72
    Sun H. (2006) The interaction between pathogens and the host coagulation system. Physiology (Bethesda) 21: 2818.
  • 73
    Sun H., Ringdahl U., Homeister J.W., Fay W.P., Engleberg N.C., Yang A.Y., Rozek L.S., Wang X., Sjobring U., Ginsburg D. (2004) Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection. Science 305: 12836.
  • 74
    Han R. (2009) Plasma lipoproteins are important components of the host defense system? J Immunol 182: 134.74.
  • 75
    Edelberg J.M., Gonzalez-Gronow M., Pizzo S.V. (1989) Lipoprotein a inhibits streptokinase-mediated activation of human plasminogen. Biochemistry 28: 23704.
  • 76
    Netea M.G., De Bont N., Demacker P.N., Kullberg B.J., Jacobs L.E., Verver-Jansen T.J., Stalenhoef A.F., Van Der Meer J.W. (1998) Lipoprotein(a) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human mononuclear cells. Infect Immun 66: 23657.
  • 77
    Rhainds D., Brissette L. (2004) The role of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in lipid trafficking: Defining the rules for lipid traders. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36: 3977.
  • 78
    Buyukhatipoglu H., Tiryaki O., Tahta K., Usalan C. (2007) Inflammation as a risk factor for carotid intimal-medial thickening, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis in haemodialysis patients: the role of chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infection. Nephrology (Carlton) 12: 2532.
  • 79
    Westerterp M., Berbee J.F., Pires N.M., Van Mierlo G.J., Kleemann R., Romijn J.A., Havekes L.M., Rensen P.C. (2007) Apolipoprotein C-I is crucially involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Circulation 116: 217381.
  • 80
    Milioti N., Bermudez-Fajardo A., Penichet M.L., Oviedo-Orta E. (2008) Antigen-induced immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Clin Dev Immunol 2008: 723539.
  • 81
    Mayr M., Kiechl S., Tsimikas S., Miller E., Sheldon J., Willeit J., Witztum J.L., Xu Q. (2006) Oxidized low-density lipoprotein autoantibodies, chronic infections, and carotid atherosclerosis in a population-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol 47: 243643.
  • 82
    Mattila K.J., Pussinen P.J., Paju S. (2005) Dental infections and cardiovascular diseases: a review. J Periodontol 76: 20858.
  • 83
    Seganti L., Grassi M., Mastromarino P., Pana A., Superti F., Orsi N. (1983) Activity of human serum lipoproteins on the infectivity of rhabdoviruses. Microbiologica 6: 919.
  • 84
    Shortridge K.F., Ho W.K. (1976) Comparison of the activities in inhibition of haemagglutination by different togaviruses for human serum lipoproteins and their constituents. J Gen Virol 33: 5237.