A sensitive rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method was developed for detection of Vibrio cholerae/mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus/alginolyticus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli by using specific primers. Counts of the enteric pathogens spiked in human stools were quantified at the lower detection limit of 103 cells/g stool by RT-qPCR, in marked contrast with conventional quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at the detection limit of 105 to 106 cells/g stool. The bacterial counts determined by RT-qPCR were almost equivalent to those determined by the culture method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) during the course of in vitro culture. Bacterial rRNA in the stools was stable for at least 4 weeks when the stools were kept as the suspensions in RNA-stabilizing agent, RNAlater®, even at 37oC. These data suggested that the rapid and high sensitive rRNA-targeted RT-qPCR was applicable for the accurate quantification of viable enteric pathogens, such as V. cholerae/mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus/alginolyticus and C. jejuni/coli.