These authors contributed equally to this work.
Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages
Article first published online: 29 NOV 2012
© 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Microbiology and Immunology
Volume 56, Issue 12, pages 817–824, December 2012
How to Cite
Xu, X., Huang, Q., Mao, Y., Cui, Z., Li, Y., Huang, Y., Rajput, I. R., Yu, D. and Li, W. (2012), Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages. Microbiology and Immunology, 56: 817–824. doi: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00508.x
- Issue published online: 29 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 29 NOV 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 7 SEP 2012 11:55AM EST
- Received 9 April 2012; revised 4 August 2012; accepted 27 August 2012.
- Bacillus subtilis (natto);
To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured alone or with B subtilis (natto) B4 spores at 37°C for 12 hrs, then both cells and culture supernatants were collected for analyses. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores had no significant effects on macrophage viability and amounts of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it remarkably increased the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cells and the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores are harmless to murine macrophages and can stimulate their activation through up-regulation of ACP and LDH activities and enhance their immune function by increasing iNOS activity and stimulating NO and cytokine production. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores have immunomodulatory effects on macrophages.