• 1
    Leung D.Y., Boguniewicz M., Howell M.D., Nomura I., Hamid Q.A. (2004) New insights into atopic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 113: 6517.
  • 2
    Guzik T.J., Bzowska M., Kasprowicz A., Czerniawska-Mysik G., Wójcik K., Szmyd D., Adamek-Guzik T., Pryjma J. (2005) Persistent skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis: relationship to clinical and immunological parameters. Clin Exp Allergy 35: 44855.
  • 3
    Matsui K., Nishikawa A., Suto H., Tsuboi R., Ogawa H. (2000) Comparative study of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from lesional and non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis. Microbiol Immunol 44: 9457.
  • 4
    Sutcliffe I.C., Shaw N. (1991) Atypical lipoteichoic acids of gram-positive bacteria. J Bacteriol 173: 70659.
  • 5
    Fischer W. (1994) Lipoteichoic acids and lipoglycans. In: Ghuysen J.M., Hackenbeck R., eds. Bacterial Cell Wall. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishing, pp. 199215.
  • 6
    Matsui K., Motohashi R., Nishikawa A. (2000) Cell wall components of Staphylococcus aureus induce interleukin-5 production in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Interferon Cytokine Res 20: 3214.
  • 7
    Matsui K., Nishikawa A. (2002) Lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induces Th2-prone dermatitis in mice sensitized percutaneously with an allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 32: 7838.
  • 8
    Matsui K., Nishikawa A. (2011) Percutaneous application of peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus induces infiltration of CCR4+ cells into mouse skin. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 21: 35462.
  • 9
    Matsui K., Nishikawa A. (2012) Peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus induces Th2 immune response in mice. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 22: 806.
  • 10
    Merad M., Ginhoux F., Collin M. (2008) Origin, homeostasis and function of Langerhans cells and other langerin-expressing dendritic cells. Nat Rev Immunol 8: 93547.
  • 11
    Kang K., Kubin M., Cooper K.D., Lessin S.R., Trinchieri G., Rook A.H. (1996) IL-12 synthesis by human Langerhans cells. J Immunol 156: 14027.
  • 12
    Macatonia S.E., Hosken N.A., Litton M., Vieira P., Hsieh C., Culpepper J.A., Wysocka M., Trinchieri G., Murphy K.M., O'Garra A. (1995) Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and direct the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 154: 50719.
  • 13
    D'Andrea A., Rengaraju M., Valiante N.M., Chehimi J., Kubin M., Aste M., Chan S.H., Kobayashi M., Young D., Nickbarg E., Chizzonite R., Wolf S.F., Trinchieri G. (1992) Production of natural killer cell stimulatory factor (interleukin-12) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Exp Med 176: 138798.
  • 14
    Gubler U., Chua A.O., Schoenhaut D.S., Dwyer C.M., McComas W., Motyka R., Nabavi N., Wolitzky A.G., Quinn P.M., Familletti P.C., Gately M.K. (1991) Coexpression of two distinct genes is required to generate secreted bioactive cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation fraction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 41437.
  • 15
    D'Andrea A., Ma X., Aste-Amezaga M., Paganin C., Trinchieri G. (1995) Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 on the production of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: priming for IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production. J Exp Med 181: 53746.
  • 16
    Gillessen S., Carvajal D., Ling P., Podlaski F.J., Stremlo D.L., Familletti P.C., Gubler U., Presky D.H., Stern A.S., Gately M.K. (1995) Mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 homodimer: a potent IL-12 antagonist. Eur J Immunol 25: 2006.
  • 17
    Ling P., Gately M.K., Gubler U., Stern A.S., Lin P., Hollfelder K., Su C., Pan Y.C., Hakimi J. (1995) Human IL-12 p40 homodimer binds to the IL-12 receptor but does not mediate biologic activity. J Immunol 154: 11627.
  • 18
    Heinzel F.P., Hujer A.M., Ahmed F.N., Rerko R.M. (1997) In vivo production and function of IL-12 p40 homodimers. J Immunol 158: 43818.
  • 19
    Tada Y., Asahina A., Nakamura K., Tomura M., Fujiwara H., Tamaki K. (2000) Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor inhibits IL-12 production of mouse Langerhans cells. J Immunol 164: 51139.
  • 20
    Maldonado-López R., De Smedt T., Michel P., Godfroid J., Pajak B., Heirman C., Thielemans K., Leo O., Urbain J., Moser M. (1999) CD8α+ and CD8α subclasses of dendritic cells direct the development of distinct T helper cells in vivo. J Exp Med 189: 58792.
  • 21
    Whelan M., Harnett M.M., Houston K.M., Patel V., Harnett W., Rigley K.P. (2000) A filarial nematode-secreted product signals dendritic cells to acquire a phenotype that drives development of Th2 cells. J Immunol 164: 645360.
  • 22
    O'Garra A. (1998) Cytokines induce the development of functionally heterogeneous T helper cell subsets. Immunity 8: 27583.
  • 23
    Hsieh C.S., Macatonia S.E., Tripp C.S., Wolf S.F., O'Garra A., Murphy K.M. (1993) Development of Th1 CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages. Science 260: 5479.
  • 24
    O'Garra A., Murphy K.M. (2009) From IL-10 to IL-12: how pathogens and their products stimulate APCs to induce T(H)1 development. Nat Immunol 10: 92932.
  • 25
    Iwasaki A., Kelsall B.L. (1999) Freshly isolated Peyer's patch, but not spleen, dendritic cells produce interleukin 10 and induce the differentiation of T helper type 2 cells. J Exp Med 190: 22939.
  • 26
    Laouini D., Alenius H., Bryce P., Oettgen H., Tsitsikov E., Geha R.S. (2003) IL-10 is critical for Th2 responses in a murine model of allergic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 112: 105866.
  • 27
    Grewe M., Bruijnzeel-koomen C.A.F.M., Schöpf E., Thepen T., Langeveld-Wildschut A.G., Ruzicka T., Krutmann J. (1998) A role of Th1 and Th2 cells in the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Immunol Today 19: 35961.
  • 28
    Re F., Strominger J.L. (2001) Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem 276: 376929.
  • 29
    Pulendran B., Kumar P., Cutler C.W., Mohamadzadeh M., Van Dyke T., Banchereau J. (2001) Lipopolysaccharides from distinct pathogens induce different classes of immune responses in vivo. J Immunol 167: 506776.
  • 30
    Redecke V., Hacker H., Datta S.K., Fermin A., Pitha P.M., Broide D.H., Raz E. (2004) Cutting edge: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 induces a Th2 immune response and promotes experimental asthma. J Immunol 172: 273943.
  • 31
    Dillon S., Agrawal A., Van Dyke T., Landreth G., MaCauley L., Koh A., Maliszewski C., Akira S., Pulendran B.A. (2004) Toll-like receptor 2 ligand stimulates Th2 responses in vivo, via induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Fos in dendritic cells. J Immunol 172: 473343.
  • 32
    Mandron M., Ariès M.F., Brehm R.D., Tranter H.S., Acharya K.R., Charveron M., Davrinche C. (2006) Human dendritic cells conditioned with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B promote Th2 cell polarization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117: 11417.
  • 33
    Yawalkar N., Karlen S., Egli F., Brand C.U., Graber H.U., Pichler W.J., Braathen L.R. (2000) Down-regulation of IL-12 by topical corticosteroids in chronic atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 106: 9417.
  • 34
    Alexopoulou L., Holt A.C., Medzhitov R., Flavell R.A. (2001) Recognition of double-strand RNA and activation of NF-κB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 413: 7328.
  • 35
    Imokawa G., Abe A., Jin K., Higaki Y., Kawashima M., Hidano A. (1991) Decreased level of ceramides in stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis: an etiologic factor in atopic dry skin? J Invest Dermatol 96: 5236.