• 1
    Hooper L.V., Gordon J.I. (2001) Commensal host-bacterial relationships in the gut. Science 292: 11158.
  • 2
    Liévin-Le Moal V., Servin A.L. (2006) The front line of enteric host defense against unwelcome intrusion of harmful microorganisms: mucins, antimicrobial peptides, and microbiota. Clin Microbiol Rev 19: 31537.
  • 3
    Allen C.A., Torres A.G.(2008) Host-microbe communication within the GI tract. Adv Exp Med Biol 635: 93101.
  • 4
    Hakansson A., Molin G.(2011) Gut microbiota and inflammation. Nutrients 3: 63782.
  • 5
    Masood M.I., Qadir M.I., Shirazi J.H., Khan I.U.(2011) Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings. Crit Rev Microbiol 37: 918.
  • 6
    Jan R.L., Yeh K.C., Hsieh M.H., Lin Y.L., Kao H.F., Li P.H., Chang Y.S., Wang J.Y.(2010) Lactobacillus gasseri suppresses Th17 pro-inflammatory response and attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Br J Nutr 14: 110.
  • 7
    Kumar M., Kumar A., Nagpal R., Mohania D., Behare P., Verma V., Kumar P., Poddar D., Aggarwal P.K., Henry C.J., Jain S., Yadav H.(2010) Cancer-preventing attributes of probiotics: an update. Int J Food Sci Nutr 61: 47396.
  • 8
    Cunningham-Rundles S., Ahrné S., Johann-Liang R., Abuav R., Dunn-Navarra A.M., Grassey C., Bengmark S., Cervia J.S.(2011) Effect of probiotic bacteria on microbial host defense, growth, and immune function in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Nutrients 3: 104270.
  • 9
    Ejtahed H.S., Mohtadi-Nia J., Homayouni-Rad A., Niafar M., Asghari-Jafarabadi M., Mofid V., Akbarian-Moghari A.(2011) Effect of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Dairy Sci 94: 328894.
  • 10
    Lee I.A., Bae E.A., Lee J.H., Lee H., Ahn Y.T., Huh C.S., Kim D.H.(2010) Bifidobacterium longum HY8004 attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in mice. Inflamm Res 59: 35968.
  • 11
    Meijerink M., Wells J.M.(2010) Probiotic modulation of dendritic cells and T cell responses in the intestine. Benef Microbes 1: 31726.
  • 12
    Castillo N.A., Perdigón G., de Moreno de Leblanc A.(2011) Oral administration of a probiotic lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice. BMC Microbiol 11: 17788.
  • 13
    Maldonado Galdeano C., Novotny Núñez I., de Moreno de LeBlanc A., Carmuega E., Weill R., Perdigón G.(2011) Impact of a probiotic fermented milk in the gut ecosystem and in the systemic immunity using a non-severe protein-energy-malnutrition model in mice. BMC Gastroenterol 11: 6477.
  • 14
    Westendorf A.M., Fleissner D., Hansen W., Buer J.(2010) T cells, dendritic cells and epithelial cells in intestinal homeostasis. Int J Med Microbiol 300: 118.
  • 15
    Akira S., Uematsu S., Takeuchi O.(2006) Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124: 783801.
  • 16
    Matsumoto M., Seya T.(2008) TLR3: interferon induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). Adv Drug Deliv Rev 60: 80512.
  • 17
    Riordan S.M., Skinner N., Nagree A., McCallum H., McIver C.J., Kurtovic J., Hamilton J.A., Bengmark S., Williams R., Visvanathan K.(2003) Peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of toll-like receptors and relation to cytokine levels in cirrhosis. Hepatology 37: 115464.
  • 18
    Ghadimi D., de Vrese M., Heller K.J., Schrezenmeir J.(2010) Lactic acid bacteria enhance autophagic ability of mononuclear phagocytes by increasing Th1 autophagy-promoting cytokine (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and reducing Th2 autophagy-restraining cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen. Int Immunopharmacol 10: 694706.
  • 19
    Shida K., Nanno M., Nagata S.(2011) Flexible cytokine production by macrophages and T cells in response to probiotic bacteria: a possible mechanism by which probiotics exert multifunctional immune regulatory activities. Gut Microbes 2: 10914.
  • 20
    Zhang H.P., Menghe B., Wang J.G., Sun T.S., Xu J., Wang L.P., Yun Y.Y., Wu R.N.(2006) Assessment of potential probiotic properties of L.casei Zhang strain isolated from traditionally home-made Koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China. China Dairy Industry 34: 410.
  • 21
    Ya T., Zhang Q.J., Chu F.L., Merritt J., Menghe B., Sun T.S., Du R.T., Zhang H.P.(2008) Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China. BMC Immunol 9: 6876.
  • 22
    Wang Y.Z., Chen T.Y., Han C.F., He D.H., Liu H.B., An H.Z., Cai Z., Cao X.T.(2007) Lysosome-associated small Rab GTPase Rab7b negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages by promoting lysosomal degradation of TLR4. Blood 110: 96271.
  • 23
    Aktan F.(2004) iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production and its regulation. Life Sci 75: 63953.
  • 24
    Morita H., He F., Fuse T., Ouwehand A.C., Hashimoto H., Hosoda M., Mizumachi K., Kurisaki J.(2002) Cytokine production by the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 after exposure to lactobacilli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66: 19636.
  • 25
    Matsuguchi T., Takagi A., Matsuzaki T., Nagaoka M., Ishikawa K., Yokokura T., Yoshikai Y.(2003) Lipoteichoic acids from lactobacillus strains elicit strong tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing activities in macrophages through Toll-like receptor 2. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10: 25966.
  • 26
    Kim D.W., Cho S.B., Lee H.J., Chung W.T., Kim K.H., Hwangbo J., Nam I.S., Cho Y.I., Yang M.P., Chung I.B.(2007) Comparison of cytokine and nitric oxide induction in murine macrophages between whole cell and enzymatically digested Bifidobacterium sp. obtained from monogastric animals. J Microbiol 45: 30510.
  • 27
    Miettinen M., Vuopio-Varkila J., Varkila K.(1996) Production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 is induced by lactic acid bacteria. Infect Immun 64: 54035.
  • 28
    Cross M.L., Ganner A., Teilab D., Fray L.M.(2004) Patterns of cytokine induction by gram-positive and gram-negative probiotic bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 42: 17380.
  • 29
    Chon H., Choi B., Lee E., Lee S., Jeong G.(2009) Immunomodulatory effects of specific bacterial components of Lactobacillus plantarum KFCC11389P on the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. J Appl Microbiol 107: 158897.
  • 30
    Weiss G., Rasmussen S., Zeuthen L.H., Nielsen B.N., Jarmer H., Jespersen L., Frøkiaer H.(2010) Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism. Immunology 131: 26881.
  • 31
    Yong S., Shuang J., Zhang Q.J.(2010) The adjuvant effect of L.casei Zhang peptidoglycan on avian influenza vaccination. Journal of Qinghai Medical College 31: 21724.
  • 32
    Galdeano C.M., Perdigón G.(2006) The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei induces activation of the gut mucosal immune system through innate immunity. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 21926.
  • 33
    Yoneyama M., Suhara W., Fujita T. (2002) Control of IRF-3 activation by phosphorylation. J Interferon Cytokine Res 22: 736.