• Colorectal cancer;
  • Adenoma;
  • Dietary habits

We conducted a comparative case-control study of colorectal cancer and adenoma involving 221 cases with colorectal cancer, 525 cases with colorectal adenoma and 578 neighborhood controls. Daily vegetables intake was associated with lower risks of distal colon adenoma (relative risk (RR)=0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39–0.89) and rectal cancer (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.25–0.84). Daily beans intake was associated with lower risk of colon adenoma (RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37–0.91 for the proximal colon and RR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.45–0.88 for the distal colon) and daily intake of seaweeds was associated with lower risk of rectal cancer (RR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.22–0.82). Daily intake of fish and shellfish also showed an inverse association with the risk of colon adenoma (RR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.45–0.99 for the proximal colon and RR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 for the distal colon). Generally, intakes of animal or vegetable fat-rich foods, especially meats, were associated with decreases in risks of both adenoma and cancer, though the association of cancer was not statistically significant. Other than dietary factors, daily alcohol drinking was associated with an increased risk of adenoma in the proximal colon (RR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.15–3.29) and ex-drinkers showed higher risks for colon adenoma and colorectal cancer. Sports or occupational activities and coffee drinking were inversely associated and family history of colorectal cancer was positively associated with the risks of both colorectal adenoma and cancer.