• F344 rat;
  • B6C3F1 mouse;
  • Hepatocellular tumor;
  • Tubular cell tumor

Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity of phenylbutazone, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were evaluated in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. In 2-year studies, phenylbutazone was given in corn oil by gavage 5 days per week to groups of 50 rats of each sex at doses of 0, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight, and to groups of 50 mice at doses of 0, 150, or 300 mg/kg body weight. Body weights and survival were similar among groups. Major target organs are kidneys in rats, and liver in mice. Kidney: inflammation, papillary necrosis, and mineralization in both sexes of rats, and hyperplasia and dilatation of the pelvis epithelium, and cysts in female rats. Uncommon tubular cell tumors of the kidney were found in 13 exposed rats: 5 in the 50 mg group and 4 in the 100 mg group of males; 4 in dosed female rats; none in controls. In female rats, dose-related increases in hyperplasia of the pelvis transitional epithelium, and 2 carcinomas were discovered. Urinary bladder: papillomas of the transitional epithelium were seen in 2 low-dose male and in 1 low-dose female rats. Forestomach: ulcers in rats, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and basal cell hyperplasia in female rats; however, no neoplasms were associated with these lesions. Liver: primarily in male mice exposed to. phenylbutazone, hemorrhage, centrilobular cytomegaly and karyomegaly, fatty metamorphosis, cellular degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen; clear cell foci were observed in male mice. In summary, under the conditions of these 2-year oral intubation studies, phenylbutazone is associated with renal carcinogenicity in rats, as evidenced by increases in tubular cell neoplasms in both sexes. Evidence of carcinogenicity for male mice was shown by increased incidences and multiplicity of liver tumors. No carcinogenic activity was found for female mice.