• Open Access

Rare-type Mutations of MMAC1 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Human Glioma Cell Lines and Their Tumors of Origin



A total of 10 glioma cell lines were examined to evaluate the status of the MMAC1 gene, a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Six cell lines showed mutations with presumed loss of heterozygosity and 1 cell line showed no mRNA expression. The 6 mutations consisted of 3 3-bp deletions (codons 17, 101 or 199), 1 missense mutation (codon 252) and 2 truncation mutations (1 nonsense mutation at codon 233 and 1 2-bp insertion at codon 241). Among them, the 3-bp deletions, which are a rare type of mutation in MMAC1 gene, were located in the N-terminal half (codons 1–212) of the coding region, which is considered important in MMAC1 function. The missense mutation was located unusually in the C-terminal half (codons 212–403), but it was in a small region in which some other reported missense mutations are clustered. Thus, these 4 mutations were suggested to have functional effects on the MMAC1 activity, like the other 2 mutations with predicted protein truncations. By sequence analysis of cDNA clones, we confirmed that all the mutations including these 4 rare ones were in the MMAC1 gene, not in the PTH2 pseudogene. In 2 cases, we also examined the primary glioma tissues from which the cell lines had been derived and found the same mutations as in the cell lines in both cases. This suggested that the mutations in these cell lines were derived from the primary glioma tissues, but not from artifacts arising during long-term in vitro cultivation.


single-stand conformation polymorphism


reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction


loss of heterozygosity