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Keywords:

  • Genetic polymorphisms;
  • Haimen;
  • HBV/HCV;
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma;
  • Lifestyle

A case-control study was carried out to investigate the impact of factors including virus infection, aflatoxin B1, microcystins, smoking/drinking and dietary habits as well as genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), on susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Haimen, China. A total of 248 patients with HCC and 248 sex-, age- and residence-matched population-based controls were recruited into the study. Virus infection, and ALDH2 and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms were assessed in 134 paired cases and controls. By univariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (odds ratio [OR]=9.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] =4.71–20.2), history of intravenous injection (OR=1.50; 95%CI=1.02–2.22), average income (OR=0.63; 95% CI=0.43–0.92), frequent intake of foods rich in protein, e.g., egg (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.42–0.87), chicken (OR=0.53; 95% CI=0.35–0.79), pork (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.46–0.98) and fresh fish (OR=0.58; 95% CI=0.39–0.87) significantly differed between cases and controls. However, peanut intake (OR=0.66; 95% CI=0.43–1.01), source of drinking water, including tap (OR=1.33; 95% CI=0.81–2.20), deep well (OR=0.94; 95% CI=0.56–1.55), shallow well (OR=0.85; 95% CI=0.55-–1.30), river (OR=0.95; 95% CI=0.65–1.38), ditch (OR=1.09; 95% CI=0.76–1.55) and pond water (OR=1.0; 95% CI=0.14–7.10) were not significantly associated with risk. Univariate analysis also indicated that the 1–1 genotype of ALDH2 (OR=1.38; 95% CI=0.86–2.23) as well as the Pst1- and Rsa1-digested c1/c1 genotype of CYP2E1 (OR=1.36; 95% CI=0.81–2.28), was slightly more frequent in the case group. On multivariate analysis, HBV infection (OR=13.9; 95% CI=5.78–33.6) and history of intravenous injection (OR=2.72; 95% CI=1.24–6.00) were still associated with significantly increased risk of HCC, while frequent intake of fresh fish (OR=0.32; 95% CI=0.12–0.86) decreased this risk. These findings suggest that whereas peanut intake, water sources as well as genetic polymorphisms in ALDH2 and CYP2E1 do not significantly correlate with the risk of HCC, HBV infection is a main risk factor, and dietary items rich in protein, especially fresh fish, might protect against the risk of HCC in Haimen, China.