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    Soussi T. The p53 tumor suppressor gene: from molecular biology to clinical investigation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 910: 12137; discussion 37–9.
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    Yokozaki H, Yasui W, Tahara E. Genetic and epigenetic changes in stomach cancer. Int Rev Cytol 2001; 204: 4995.
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    Tong JH, To KF, Ng EK, Lau JY, Lee TL, Lo KW, Leung WK, Tang NL, Chan FK, Sung JJ, Chung SC. Somatic beta-catenin mutation in gastric carcinoma-an infrequent event that is not specific for microsatellite instability. Cancer Lett 2001; 163: 12530.
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    Woo DK, Kim HS, Lee HS, Kang YH, Yang HK, Kim WH. Altered expression and mutation of beta-catenin gene in gastric carcinomas and cell lines. Int J Cancer 2001; 95: 10813.
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    Ebert MP, Fei G, Kahmann S, Muller O, Yu J, Sung JJ, Malfertheiner P. Increased beta-catenin mRNA levels and mutational alterations of the APC and beta-catenin gene are present in intestinal-type gastric cancer. Carcinogenesis 2002; 23: 8791.
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    Ohgaki H, Sugimura T. Experimental gastric cancer. In: SugimuraT, SasakoM, editors. Gastric cancer. New York : Oxford University Press; 1997. p. 7386.
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    Ohgaki H, Kawachi T, Matsukura N, Morino K, Miyamoto M, Sugimura T. Genetic control of susceptibility of rats to gastric carcinoma. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 36637.
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    Tatematsu M, Furihata C, Katsuyama T, Mera Y, Inoue T, Matsushima T, Ito N. Immunohistochemical demonstration of pyloric gland-type cells with low-pepsinogen isozyme 1 in preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues of rat stomachs treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 78: 7717.
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    Hirayama Y, Wakazono K, Yamamoto M, Kitano M, Tatematsu M, Nagao M, Sugimura T, Ushijima T. Rare mutations of p53, Ki-ras, and beta-catenin genes and absence of K-sam and c-erbB-2 amplification in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced rat stomach cancers. Mol Carcinog 1999; 25: 427.
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    Yamamoto M, Tsukamoto T, Sakai H, Shirai N, Ohgaki H, Furihata C, Done-hower LA, Yoshida K, Tatematsu M. p53 knockout mice (−/−) are more susceptible than (+/−) or (+/+) mice to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea stomach carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 18917.
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    Tsukamoto T, Tanaka H, Fukami H, Inoue M, Takahashi M, Wakabayashi K, Tatematsu M. More frequent β-catenin gene mutations in adenomas than in aberrant crypt foci or adenocarcinomas in the large intestines of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-treated rats. Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91: 7926.
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    Park WS, Oh RR, Park JY, Lee SH, Shin MS, Kim YS, Kim SY, Lee HK, Kim PJ, Oh ST, Yoo NJ, Lee JY. Frequent somatic mutations of the beta-catenin gene in intestinal-type gastric cancer. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 425760.
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    Koesters R, Hans MA, Benner A, Prosst R, Boehm J, Gahlen J, Doeberitz MK. Predominant mutation of codon 41 of the beta-catenin proto-oncogene in rat colon tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine using a complete carcinogenic protocol. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 188590.
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    Takahashi M, Fukuda K, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Beta-catenin is frequently mutated and demonstrates altered cellular location in azoxymethane-induced rat colon tumors. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 426.
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    Dashwood RH, Suzui M, Nakagama H, Sugimura T, Nagao M. High frequency of beta-catenin (ctnnb1) mutations in the colon tumors induced by two heterocyclic amines in the F344 rat. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 11279.
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    Blum CA, Xu M, Orner GA, Fong AT, Bailey GS, Stoner GD, Horio DT, Dashwood RH. Beta-catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 31520.
  • 29
    Suzui M, Ushijima T, Dashwood RH, Yoshimi N, Sugimura T, Mori H, Nagao M. Frequent mutations of the rat beta-catenin gene in colon cancers induced by methylazoxymethanol acetate plus 1-hydroxyanthraquinone. Mol Carcinog 1999; 24: 2327.
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    Suzui M, Sugie S, Mori H, Okuno M, Tanaka T, Moriwaki H. Different mutation status of the beta-catenin gene in carcinogen-induced colon, brain, and oral tumors in rats. Mol Carcinog 2001; 32: 20612.
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    Ilyas M, Tomlinson IP, Rowan A, Pignatelli M, Bodmer WF. Beta-catenin mutations in cell lines established from human colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 103304.
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    Morin PJ, Sparks AB, Korinek V, Barker N, Clevers H, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. Activation of beta-catenin-Tcf signaling in colon cancer by mutations in beta-catenin or APC. Science 1997; 275: 178790.