• 1
    Kadomatsu K, Hagihara M, Akhter S, Fan QW, Muramatsu H, Muramatsu T. Midkine induces the transformation of NI-H3T3 cells. Br J Cancer 1997; 75: 3549.
  • 2
    Michikawa M, Xu RY, Muramatsu H, Muramatsu T, Kim SU. Midkine is a mediator of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993; 192: 13128.
  • 3
    Muramatsu T. Midkine (MK), the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene, and pleiotrophin constitute a new protein family regulating growth and differentiation (review). Int J Dev Biol 1993; 37: 1838.
  • 4
    Tsutsui J, Kadomatsu K, Matsubara S, Nakagawara A, Hamanoue M, Takao S, Shimazu H, Ohi Y, Muramatsu T. A new family of heparin-binding growth/differentiation factors: increased midkine expression in Wilms' tumor and other human carcinomas. Cancer Res 1993; 153: 12815.
  • 5
    Garver RI, Chan CS, Milner PG. Reciprocal expression of pleiotrophin and midkine in normal versus malignant lung tissues. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1993; 9: 4636.
  • 6
    Garver RI, Radford DM, Donis-Keller H, Wick MR, Milner PG. Midkine and pleiotrophin expression in normal and malignant breast tissue. Cancer 1994; 74: 158490.
  • 7
    Nakagawara A, Milbrandt J, Muramatsu T, Deuel TF, Zhao H, Cnaan A, Brodeur GM. Differential expression of pleiotrophin and midkine in advanced neuroblastomas. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 17927.
  • 8
    Aridome K, Tsutsui J, Takao S, Kadomatsu K, Ozawa M, Aikou T, Muramatsu T. Increased midkine gene expression in human gastrointestinal cancers. Jpn J Cancer Res 1995; 86: 65561.
  • 9
    Miyauchi M, Shimada H, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu T, Matsubara S, Ikematsu S, Takenaga K, Asano T, Ochiai T, Sakiyama S, Tagawa M. Frequent expression of midkine gene in esophageal cancer suggests a potential usage of its promoter for suicide gene therapy. Jpn J Cancer Res 1999; 90: 46975.
  • 10
    Koide N, Hada H, Shinji T, Ujike K, Hirasaki S, Yumoto Y, Hanafusa T, Kadomatsu K, Uramatsu H, Muramatsu T, Ysuji T. Expression of the midkine gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Hepatogastroenterology 1999; 46: 318996.
  • 11
    Ye C, Qi M, Fan QW, Ito K, Akiyama S, Kasai Y, Matsuyama M, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Expression of midkine in the early stage of car-cinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1999; 79: 17984.
  • 12
    Konishi N, Nakamura M, Nakaoka S, Hiasa Y, Cho M, Uemura H, Hirao Y, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Immunohistochemical analysis of midkine expression in human prostate carcinoma. Oncology 1999; 57: 2537.
  • 13
    Mishima K, Asai A, Kadomatsu K, Ino Y, Nomura K, Narita Y, Muramatsu T, Kirino T. Increased expression of midkine during the progression of human astrocytomas. Neurosci Lett 1997; 233: 2932.
  • 14
    Muramatsu H, Song XJ, Koide N, Hada H, Tsuji T, Kadomatsu K, Inui T, Kimura T, Sakakibara S, Muramatsu T. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for midkine, and its application to evaluation of midkine concentrations in developing mouse brain and sera from patients with hepatocellular carcinomas. J Biochem 1996; 119: 11715.
  • 15
    Song XJ, Muramatsu H, Aridome K, Aikou T, Koide N, Tsuji T, Muramatsu T. The serum concentration of midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, as a tumor marker. Biomed Res 1997; 18: 37581.
  • 16
    Ikematsu S, Yano A, Aridome K, Kikuchi M, Kumai H, Nagano H, Okamoto K, Oda M, Sakuma S, Aikou T, Muramatsu H, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu T. Serum midkine concentrations are increased in patients with various types of carcinomas. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 7016.
  • 17
    Daly JM, Karnell LH, Menck HR. National cancer data base report on esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 1996; 78: 18208.
  • 18
    Shimada H, Takeda A, Nabeya Y, Okazumi SI, Matsubara H, Funami Y, Hayashi H, Gunji Y, Kobayashi S, Suzuki T, Ochiai T. Clinical signifcance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in esophageal cancer patients. Cancer 2001; 92: 6639.
  • 19
    Shimada H, Takeda A, Nabeya Y, Okazumi SI, Matsubara H, Funami Y, Hayashi H, Gunji Y, Kobayashi S, Suzuki T, Ochiai T. Prognostic significance of serum thymidine phosphorylase in the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 2002; 94: 194754.
  • 20
    SobinLH, WittekindCH, editors. UICC TNM classification of malignant tumors. 5th ed. New York : John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1997.
  • 21
    Isono K, Ochiai T. Recent advances of treatment of cancer of the esophagus (review). Ann Cancer Res Ther 1992; 1: 916.
  • 22
    Qi M, Ikematsu S, Ichihara-Tanaka K, Sakuma S, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Midkine rescues Wilms' tumor cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis: regulation of Bcl-2 expression by Midkine. J Biochem 2000; 127: 26977.
  • 23
    Takada T, Toriyama K, Muramatsu H, Song XJ, Torii S, Muramatsu T. Midkine, a retinoic acid-inducible heparin-binding cytokine in inflammatory responses: chemotactic activity to neutrophils and association with inflammatory synovitis. J Biochem 1997; 122: 4538.
  • 24
    Horiba M, Kadomatsu K, Nakamura E, Muramatsu H, Ikematsu S, Sakuma S, Hayashi K, Yuzawa Y, Matsuo S, Kuzuya M, Kaname T, Hirai M, Saito H, Muramatsu T. Neointima formation in a restenosis model is suppressed in midkine-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 2000; 105: 48995.
  • 25
    Qi M, Ikematsu S, Maeda N, Ichihara-Tanaka K, Sakuma S, Noda M, Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Haptotactic migration induced by midkine: involvement of protein-tyrosine phosphatase zeta, mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 1586875.
  • 26
    Choudhuri R, Zhang HT, Donnini S, Ziche M, Bicknell R. An angiogenic role for the neurokines midkine and pleiotrophin in tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 18149.
  • 27
    Vassilakopoulos T, Troupis T, Sotiropoulou C, Zacharatos P, Katsaounou P, Parthenis D, Noussia O, Troupis G, Papiris S, Kittas C, Roussos C, Zakynthinos S, Gorgoulis V. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 2001; 32: 13744.
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    The Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases. Comprehensive registry of esophageal cancer in Japan (1998, 1999) & long-term results of esophagectomy in Japan (19881997). 3rd ed. Tokyo , Japan .