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    Mamounas E, Wieand S, Wolmark N, Bear HD, Atkins JN, Song K, Jones J, Rockette, H. Comparative efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' B versus Dukes' C colon cancer: results from four National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Studies (C-01, C-02, C-03, C-04). J Clin Oncol 1999; 2: 134955.
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    Wolmark N, Bryant J, Smith R, Grem J, Allegra C, Hyams D, Atkins J, Dimitrov N, Oishi R, Prager D, Fehrenbacher L, Romond E, Colangelo L, Fisher B. Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin with or without interferon alfa-2a in colon carcinoma: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol C-05. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 2: 18106.
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    Dignam JJ, Colangelo L, Tian W, Jones J, Smith R, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N. Outcomes among African-Americans and Caucasians in colon cancer adjuvant therapy trials: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 193340.
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    Papamichael D. The use of thymidylate synthase inhibitors in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: current status. Stem Cells 2000; 18: 16675.
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    Advanced Colorectal Cancer Meta-analysis Project. Modulation of fluorouracil by leucovorin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: evidence in terms of response rate. J Clin Oncol 1992; 10: 896903.
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    Fujita K, Kubota T, Matsuzaki SW, Otani Y, Watanabe M, Teramoto T, Kumai K, Kitajima M. Further evidence for the value of the chemosensitivity test in deciding appropriate chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Anticancer Res 1998; 18: 19738.
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    Abe S, Kubota T, Matsuzaki SW, Otani Y, Watanabe M, Teramoto T, Kumai K, Kitajima M. Chemosensitivity test is useful in evaluating the appropriate adjuvant cancer chemotherapy for stage III non-scirrhous and scirrhous gastric cancers. Anticancer Res 1999; 19: 45816.
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    Kubota T, Egawa T, Otani Y, Furukawa T, Saikawa Y, Yoshida M, Watanabe M, Kitajima M. Cancer chemotherapy chemosensitivity testing is useful in evaluating the appropriate adjuvant cancer chemotherapy for stages III/IV gastric cancers without peritoneal dissemination. Anticancer Res 2003; 23: 5838.
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    Kabeshima Y, Kubota T, Watanabe M, Hasegawa H, Yamauchi T, Yorozuya K, Furukawa T, Otani Y, Kitajima M. Clinical usefulness of chemosensitivity testing in evaluating the optimal adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 2002; 22: 30338.
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    Ishikawa Y, Kubota T, Otani Y, Watanabe M, Teramoto T, Kumai K, Kitajima M, Takechi T, Okabe H, Fukushima M. Dihydropyrimidine dehy-drogenase activity and messenger RNA level may be related to the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil on human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5: 8839.
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    Ishikawa Y, Kubota T, Otani Y, Watanabe M, Teramoto T, Kumai K, Takechi T, Okabe H, Fukushima M, Kitajima M. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and messenger RNA levels in gastric cancer: possible predictor for sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil. Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91: 10512.
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    Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983; 65: 5563.
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    Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, editors. The general rules for the clinical and pathological study of cancer of the colon, rectum and anus. 6th ed. Tokyo : Kanehara Shuppan Co Ltd; 1998.
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    Fukushima M, Okabe H, Takechi T, Ichikawa W, Hirayama R. Induction of thymidine phosphorylase by interferon and taxanes occurs only in human cancer cells with low thymidine phosphorylase activity. Cancer Lett 2002; 187: 10310.
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    Johnston PG, Lenz HJ, Leichman CG, Danenberg KD, Allegra CJ, Danenberg PV, Leichman L. Thymidylate synthase gene and protein expression correlate and are associated with response to 5-fluorouracil in human colorectal and gastric tumors. Cancer Res 1995; 6: 140712.
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    Lenz HJ, Leichman CG, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV, Groshen S, Cohen H, Laine L, Crookes P, Silberman H, Baranda J, Garcia Y, Li J, Leichman L. Thymidylate synthase mRNA level in adenocarcinoma of the stomach: a predictor for primary tumor response and overall survival. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 17682.
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    Leichman CG, Lenz HJ, Leichman L, Danenberg K, Baranda J, Groshen S, Boswell W, Metzger R, Tan M, Danenberg PV. Quantitation of intratumoral thymidylate synthase expression predicts for disseminated colorectal cancer response and resistance to protracted-infusion fluorouracil and weekly leucovorin. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 32239.
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    Takechi T, Koizumi K, Tsujimoto H, Fukushima M. Screening of differentially expressed genes in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human gastrointestinal tumor cells. Jpn J Cancer Res 2001; 92: 696703.
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    Mori K, Hasegawa M, Nishida M, Toma H, Fukuda M, Kubota T, Nagasue N, Yamana H, Hirakawa YS, Chung K, Ikeda T, Takasaki K, Oka M, Kameyama M, Toi M, Fujii H, Kitamura M, Murai M, Sasaki H, Ozono S, Makuuchi H, Shimada Y, Onishi Y, Aoyagi S, Mizutani K, Ogawa M, Nakao A, Kinoshita H, Tono T, Imamoto H, Nakashima Y, Manabe T. Expression levels of thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in various human tumor tissues. Int J Oncol 2000; 17: 338.
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    Etienne M, Cheradame S, Fischel JL, Formento P, Dassonville O, Renee N, Schneider M, Thyss A, Demard F, Milano G. Response to fluorouracil therapy in cancer patients: the role of tumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 166370.
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    Inada T, Ichikawa A, Kubota T, Ogata Y, Moossa AR, Hoffman RM. 5-FU-induced apoptosis correlates with efficacy against human gastric and colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Anticancer Res 1997; 17: 196572.
  • 22
    Kobayashi N, Kubota T, Watanabe M, Otani Y, Teramoto T, Kitajima M. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase indicate chemosensitivity of human colon cancer specimens to doxifluridine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. J Infect Chemother 1999; 5: 1448.
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    Beck A, Etienne MC, Cheradame S, Fischel JL, Formento P, Renee N, Milano G. A role for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidylate synthase in tumour sensitivity to fluorouracil. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A: 151722.
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    Salonga D, Danenberg KD, Johnson M, Metzger R, Groshen S, Tsao-Wei DD, Lenz HJ, Leichman CG, Leichman L, Diasio RB, Danenberg PV. Colorectal tumors responding to 5-fluorouracil have low gene expression levels of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidylate synthase, and thymidine phosphorylase. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 13227.
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    McLeod HL, Sludden J, Murray GI, Keenan RA, Davidson AI, Park K, Koruth M, Cassidy J. Characterization of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in human colorectal tumors. Br J Cancer 1998; 77: 4615.
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    Johnston SJ, Ridge SA, Cassidy J, McLeod HL. Regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5: 255670.
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    Uetake H, Ichikawa W, Takechi T, Fukushima M, Nihei Z, Sugihara K. Relationship between intratumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity and gene expression in human colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5: 28369.
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    Rauchwerger DR, Firby PS, Hedley DW, Moore MJ. Equilibrative-sensitive nucleoside transporter and its role in gemcitabine sensitivity. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 60759.
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    Mackey JR, Jennings LL, Clarke ML, Santos CL, Dabbagh L, Vsianska M, Koski SL, Coupland RW, Baldwin SA, Young JD, Cass CE. Immunohistochemical variation of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 protein in primary breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8: 1106.
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    Boyer CR, Karjian PL, Wahl GM, Pegram M, Neuteboom ST. Nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and p-nitrobenzylthioinosine, selectively potentiate the antitumor activity of NB1011. Anticancer Drugs 2002; 13: 2936.