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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF family of cytokines, which can induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of tumor cells by engaging the death receptors DR4 and DR5, while sparing most normal cells. Preclinical studies in mice and non-human primates have shown the potential utility of recombinant soluble TRAIL and agonistic anti-DR5 or DR4 antibodies for cancer therapy. Moreover, we have recently revealed a vital role for endogenously expressed TRAIL in immunosurveillance of developing and meta-static tumors. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about TRAIL and its receptors as promising targets for cancer therapy.