Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a unique lymphoma developing in the pleural cavity after long-standing pyothorax. They are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), frequently with immunoblastic morphology, and show a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, cDNA microarray analysis was performed in six cases with PAL and 12 with nodal DLBCL. Among 5516 informative genes, 348 displayed more than 2-fold difference (higher or lower) of expression level between PAL and nodal DLBCL (P>0.001). These genes are known to be involved in apoptosis, interferon response, and signal transduction. One of the most differentially expressed genes, IFI27 (interferon-α-inducible protein 27) was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and increased expression of IFI27 was confirmed. Over-expression of IFI27 was also found in cell lines derived from PAL, but not in other lymphoid cell lines. This study shows that PAL is a distinctive subtype of DLBCL not only in its clinical presentation, but also in its molecular profile.